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Cost-causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

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Michael Milligan, Erik Ela, Bri-Mathias Hodge, Brendan Kirby, Debra Lew
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This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, which improvements are likely to be made in the near future and why calculating integration costs is difficult and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.