The paper presents agriculture-based practices and technologies that have the potential to increase food production and the adaptive capacity of the food production system, as well as reduce emissions or enhance carbon storage in agricultural soils and biomass. However, even where such synergies exist, capturing them may entail significant costs, particularly for smallholders in the short term. The paper provides a brief review of the adaptation and mitigation benefits from various practices, and then focus in detail on empirical evidence concerning costs and barriers to adoption, both from household and project-level data. Findings indicate that up-front investment costs can be a significant barrier to adoption for certain investments and practices, and furthermore, the evidence also supports the hypotheses that opportunity and transactions costs across a wide range of investments and practices.

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Storm surge barriers and closure dams
Mitigation in the pulp and paper industry
Switch from fossil fuel to biomass
Pasture management
Soil moisture conservation techniques