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Buying time: a user’s manual for building resistance and resilience to climate change in natural systems

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This manual is intended for natural resource managers who wish to plan for the potential and current impacts of climate change. It looks at impacts and mitigation measures (other than reducing emissions) by biome. The manual outlines practical ideas of how to begin increasing the resiliency of ecosystems and plan our protected areas in response to the threat of climate change. Some of these strategies are in line with conservation strategies that are not new, such as reducing fragmentation, building corridors, reducing threats, and increasing resiliency in general. The manual calls on managers to communicate the threat that climate change poses to their biome to local, regional and national authorities. Resource managers have an important role to play in the climate change debate by using examples of changes seen in their regions as indicators of the need for rapid and deep cuts in CO2 emissions.The first chapter outlines the concept of resilience of ecosystems and how to create it, as well as monitor for change and use adaptive management strategies. The following chapters then discuss mitigation measures in the following biomes:GrasslandsForestsAlpine/MontaneArcticTemperate marineTropical marineFreshwaterThe final two chapters outline:some of the known and expected benefits that protected areas offer national or regional strategies to increase resilience against climate change and suggests ways in which protected area authorities and managers can maximise these benefitsa PA manager guide to regional biodiversity impacts assessments for climate change