This policy brief is a supplement to ‘Bridges of Opportunity: Partnering for Africa–Europe Green Development’, a discussion paper prepared by the United Nations University Institute for Natural Resources in Africa (UNU-INRA) on Africa’s development options and the green transition in light of COVID-19 and the new European Green Deal. The research was produced through the project Green African Transformation (GREAT) Pathways, coordinated by UNU-INRA, which aimed to highlight African perspectives on the green transition and identify priority areas for collaboration ahead of the upcoming AU-EU summit. The research outlines development pathways for African priorities and the need for an endogenous transition at an appropriate pace and scale given the contextual realities the continent faces. The research draws on expertise and engagement by key regional institutions, including the African Union (AU), African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD), African Development Bank (AfDB) and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). Literature and policy documents on greening, climate change and COVID-19 were reviewed and analysed, and this was supported by a series of expert interviews.