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Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia: Past, Present, and Future

Susan Shaheen, Stacey Guzman, Hua Zhang
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This report breaks down the history of bike sharing programs in Europe, the Americas, and Asia. It is organised into seven sections. First, a history of bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia is presented, focused on the first two generations. Next, current bikesharing activities in Europe, the Americas, and Asia are discussed. Third, bikesharing business models and vendors are described. Next, the current understanding of the social and environmental benefits associated with bikesharing is summarized. Fifth, lessons learned are presented. Next, a fourth bikesharing generation is proposed with an eye toward future developments and innovation. Finally, the paper concludes with a summary and recommendations for future research.