This report attempts to present a side-by-side comparison of alternative fuels and vehicles. It examines the benefits and challenges of various alternatives, including resource availability, infrastructure needs, capital requirements, timetables for at-scale contributions, and environmental sustainability. Chapter two looks at new alternative fuels and provides an overview of the infrastructure challenge the United States faces when looking to implement them. Chapter three focuses on advances in technologies for light-duty vehicles including high-efficiency internal combustion engines, flex-fuel vehicles, and hybrid and electric cars. Chapter four addresses the challenges in adopting new policies and creating incentives for change.