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Adaptation to climate change for sustainable development in the coastal zone of Egypt

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M. Raey
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This paper highlights that fact that Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to the impacts of climate change. The paper states that Egypt hosts about 25% of the total wetland of the Mediterranean Sea, with a shoreline that extends for over 5800 km on the Mediterranean and Red Sea.Results presented in this paper highlight the potential impacts climate change induced coastal inundation in Egypt, including, salt water intrusion, excessive erosion, soil salinisation, deterioration of coral reef and mangrove communities, in addition to vulnerabilities to other changes of climate.Estimates of the socioeconomic implications and expected job losses over the coming few decades have produced alarming figures, the paper claims. In particular, the potential losses of world heritage sites cannot be underestimated.The paper states that preliminary investigations indicated that hard structure protection measures are probably the least costly and best available measure for short-term protection. Whereas long-term protection measures include the most expensive land use changes and integrated coastal zone management.The paper concludes by proposing a number of appropriate mitigation strategies, including:establishment of exit strategies for adaptation in coordination with the Ministry of Planning, Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources and Ministry of Tourism based on recent experience of climate variabilityidentification and Assessment of likely future trends based on regional scenarios with emphasis on socio-economic scenariosdevelopment of an information database concerning investment in the coastal zonecarrying out programs of raising awareness of decision makers, stakeholders and NGOs concerning impacts of sea level riseidentification of a coherent set of alternative policy options, priority measures and capacity building for more detailed analysis.This paper was presented at the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development: Development and Climate Change, Paris 2004.[adpated from author]