This publication gives an account of the Government of Mozambique/FAO led interventions on strengthening smallholder agriculture, community-based natural resources management, and livelihood diversification in the face of current and future climate-related stresses. It provides the rationale behind each of the activities, innovations and successes, but also barriers and challenges encountered. The key elements which are essential for climate change adaptation in semiarid southern African regions, include improved access to water for human, livestock and productive purposes, strengthening of dryland crop production by improving soil fertility and water holding capacity, integrated crop-livestock-agroforestry production practices, small-scale crop irrigation where possible, development of the livestock industry (rangeland and nutritional management, health services, processing, and small animals), sustainable community forest management and regulation, and tried and tested options for livelihood diversification (e.g. beekeeping). Supportive technologies which will make a significant contribution include renewable energy, district-level climate information and communications, and a local centre for development of climate-adaptive technologies.