The present invention is a substrate geometry for 3D photovoltaic fabrication with an electrode geometry that is robust against defects in lithography so as to allow less expensive patterning approaches. The thin film photovoltaic device has an outer semiconductor disposed to receive light and first and second contacts disposed in different layers with an insulator between the contacts.
This invention has the novel geometry of thin film photovoltaic devices that is an improvement to the coplanar geometry of traditional films. The benefit is that it eliminates light blockage and thus improves the efficiency of the thin film. The geometry takes advantage of existing fabrication processes but enables the use of less expensive patterning techniques.