There is a continual need for low cost small-sized fast responding sensors for toxic industrial chemicals volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and chemical warfare agents. In addition there is a growing need for sensors that can monitor the residual adsorption capacity of activated carbon filtration cartridges in gas masks and personal protective equipment. In the U.S. government health and safety regulations require the detection of contaminants prior to depletion of the carbon bed\'s adsorption capacity. However these regulations have not been yet enacted due to a lack of suitable sensing devices.
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