Project ID: D2011-30 Background:Biomass of non-lignocellulosic origin is typically composed of one or more of three components – protein starch and oils (such as triacylglycerides or other lipids). One of the concerns with thermochemical processing of protein-containing biomass is contamination of bio-oil with nitrogen-containing compounds (such as pyrozole pyridine maltol etc.) derived from protein. N-containing fuels are of low quality and may not pass fuel standards due to formation of NOx upon combustion. In addition when bio-oils are upgraded through catalytic hydrogenation and deoxygenation presence of N-compounds can poison the catalysts. Researchers at the University of Toledo have developed a process to recover oil and gas individually from each of these fractions and produce high-quality bio-oils and/or biodiesel free of nitrogen-containing compounds. Invention Description:A method for production of multiple biofuels through thermal fractionation of non-lignocellulosic biomass is described. The method involves heating the biomass feedstock in an inert and oxygen-free environment and is performed at lower temperatures than conventional pyrolysis. The method results in the production of bio-oils gases and char. In addition the method describes ways to upgrade bio-oils to liquid fuels that are directly compatible with existing engines and infrastructure. The bio-oil production and upgradation all occur within a single process that is integrated with the thermal fractionation.
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