The invention disclosure relates to a technology of membrane formulation and fabrication to produce membranes with high water flux and high salt rejection for FO applications based on cellulose acetate (CA) and its derivatives. The FO membrane of the present invention is for single-layer hollow fiber membranes but it is also applicable for dual-layer hollow fiber membranes. This results in a novel membrane with high performance and high packing density. The ideal FO membranes should be a semi-permeable hydrophilic membrane allowing water to permeate through while rejecting other components. However most of the studies on FO technologies have been based on commercially available flat-sheet membranes which present low water flux high salt leakage and difficulty to scale up limit in industry. Membrane is hydrophilic and presents a highly porous inner surface and a sublayer resulting in low resistance for water permeation. Supportive sub layer provides sufficient mechanical strength for the CA hollow fiber. Dense outer skin is very thin and semi-permeable barrier allowing water to permeate through whilst rejecting other components.
1) Low Energy requirements of Forward Osmosis as compared to other processes. 2) High water Flux and high salt rejection. 3) Uses Low-cost Cellulose Acetate as raw material for membrane. 4) Wastewater treatment plants. 5) Water reclamation. 6) Desalination.