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Reduce GHG emissions

Reduce GHG emissions

  • Fertiliser, manure and straw management (rice)

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Fertiliser and manure management in rice fields are important methane mitigation technologies. The fertiliser management mitigation option includes changes in: fertiliser types; fertiliser nutrient ratios; the rates and timing of applications; and use of nitrification inhibitors to reduce methane emissions by affecting methanogenesis in rice fields. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

  • Straw ammoniation and silage

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Straw ammoniation is a process by which low-value forage such as corn stalks, rice straw, wheat straw, and straw of other crops is ammoniated. Adding liquid ammonia, urea, or ammonium bicarbonate as ammonia sources result in the straw lignin being completely degraded, while the nutrients are enhanced. It is made more easily digestible by rumen microorganisms, which increases the digestibility of forage.

  • Mid-season drainage (rice)

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Mid-season drainage involves the removal of surface flood water from the rice crop for about seven days towards the end of tillering. The duration of the dry period must be long enough for rice plant to experience visible moisture stress. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

  • Livestock management

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Livestock are important sources of methane. The United States Environmental Protection Agency calculated that livestock, especially ruminants such as cattle and sheep, account for approximately one-third of global anthropogenic emissions of methane (US-EPA, 2006). The methane is produced primarily through the process of enteric fermentation and released through the process of eructation (Crutzen, 1995). In addition, N2O emissions are generated by livestock through secretion of nitrogen through the urine and faeces.

  • Improvement of Agri-food processes

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    The agri-food industry comprises an integrated complex production chain which ranges from the primary agriculture to the mature food and beverage sector. It is considered as one of the largest sectors  worldwide with significant contribution to the economic advancement of nations and major social impact.

  • Reduced tillage (rice)

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    For upland crops, reduced tillage technology for paddy rice involves planting or transplanting directly into the soil with minimal prior tillage in the residues of the preceding crop. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

  • Chemical fertiliser amendment (rice)

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Emissions of GHGs are affected by the amounts and types of fertilisers applied, so judicious choice of fertiliser application rates and fertiliser types can reduce emissions. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

  • Electron acceptors (rice)

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Addition of electron acceptors, such as ferrihydrite, to paddy fields can stimulate microbial populations that compete with and slow the activity of methanogens, thereby reducing emissions of methane. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

  • Alternate wetting and drying (rice)

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines has developed a new mitigation technology for methane known as alternate wetting and drying (AWD) (IRRI, 2009). AWD is a watersaving and methane mitigation technology that lowland (paddy) rice farmers can use to reduce their water consumption in irrigated fields. Rice fields using this technology are alternately flooded and dried. The number of days of drying the soil in AWD can vary according to the type of soil and the cultivar from 1 day to more than 10 days.

  • Agricultural biotechnology (rice)

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    The biotechnology approach for methane mitigation technology involves identification of rice cultivars which emit less methane. It also involves the tailoring of plants which translocate less photosynthate to the roots and more to reproductive parts. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.