In Kenya, water services available for the poor are often inadequate, unsafe and unsustainable. Arid and Semi-Arid areas (ASAL) in the Northern part of Kenya and poor peri-urban areas are particularly vulnerable, as these are characterized by low level of water service provision and acute water scarcity, where water demand considerably surpasses availability. With very low population density, the water and sanitation services in the ASAL areas are considered to be financially unattractive, with minimum willingness and ability to pay, high capital costs and minimal returns on investment. The same case applies to urban low income areas and has led to low investment in these areas.
The Government of Kenya asked the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) to assist with a pre-feasibility study to determine the technical, economic and social feasibility of three selected water technologies for the targeted areas (solar, wind and water pans); as well as to identify the potential private sector actors and Public Private Partnerships (PPP), develop a Public Private Partnership business model and a preliminary draft of a concept note for the Green Climate Fund (GCF) to enable piloting of technologies and support implementation of PPP.
A feasibility study was undertaken to provide an improved understanding of the economic, social and technical feasibility of three green water technologies: solar and wind pumping systems and water pans, in targeted ASAL and urban areas. Based on the results from the study and local consultations, a model was developed, which aims to bring in new partners to support the Water Sector Trust Fund in bringing new financing and expertise to water service provision in challenging areas (development cooperation, private sector and local entrepreneurs). A concept note ‘Enhanced Access to Financing for Green Water and sanitation Technologies in Kenya’ was developed to be submitted to the GCF.
With the support of the Centre's partners UNEP DTU Partnership and the Green Technology Center, this assistance will result in improved water access to underserved communities in arid, semi arid and urban areas; climate-proofing of water infrastructure with green technologies; knowledge base and platform for technology pilots planned under other programmes. The proposed programme offers avoided CO2 emissions of 51,180 tonnes/year, assuming that 3,000 solar pumps are installed. With regards to adaptation impact, it is expected that approx. 3.0 million people will benefit directly from the programme, will increase their capacity to adapt as a result of improved water access, and 28 million people in the target areas will indirectly benefit from this programme, of which 14 million are women.