Steam Gasification Plant Designed for Efficient Conversion of Various Biomass into Fuel & Chemical Feedstock
Water fall pump based on hydrostatic pressure.
A hydram (hydraulic ram pumps) is an automatic pumping device which utilises a small fall of water to lift a fraction of the supply flow to a much greater height.
The lithium-air battery, Li-air for short, is a metal-air battery chemistry that uses the oxidation of lithium at the anode and reduction of oxygen at the cathode to induce a current flow. Originally proposed in the 1970s as a possible power source for electric vehicles, Li-air batteries recaptured scientific interest in the late 2000s due to advances in materials technology and an increasing demand for environmentally safe and oil-independent energy sources.
Sodium-ion batteries are a type of reusable battery that uses sodium-ions as its charge carriers. This type of battery is in a developmental phase. Sodium-ion batteries can be made portable and can function at room temperature (approx. 25˚C).
Applications: long term-storage, arbitrage, distributed/off-grid storage, reserve grid capacity
A sodium–sulfur battery is a type of molten-salt battery constructed from liquid sodium (Na) and sulfur (S). This type of battery has a high energy density, high efficiency of charge/discharge (89–92%) and long cycle life, and is fabricated from inexpensive materials. However, because of the operating temperatures of 300 to 350 °C and the highly corrosive nature of the sodium polysulfides, such cells are primarily suitable for large-scale non-mobile applications such as grid energy storage.
Applications: short-term storage, arbitrage, mobility
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) systems store energy in the magnetic field created by the flow of direct current in a superconducting coil which has been cryogenically cooled to a temperature below its superconducting critical temperature.
Applications: frequency or voltage regulation
Electrical Vehicles can be connected to the grid, and used to balance the (local) power distribution network. This is a feasible solution for an energy system with a higher penetration rate of intermittent renewable energy generation. Take for example the Netherlands: 6M electric vehicles with an average capacity of 20 kWh, with 20% connected to the network at any given time, providing 50% of the charging rate yields about 6M * 20 * 50% * 30% = 18 GW of instantaneous power, allbeit for a small time-frame.
Zinc–air batteries (non-rechargeable), and zinc–air fuel cells (mechanically-rechargeable) are metal-air batteries powered by oxidizing zinc with oxygen from the air. These batteries have high energy densities and are relatively inexpensive to produce. Sizes range from very small button cells for hearing aids, larger batteries used in film cameras that previously used mercury batteries, to very large batteries used for electric vehicle propulsion. During discharge, a mass of zinc particles forms a porous anode, which is saturated with an electrolyte.