Fogs have the potential to provide an alternative source of fresh water in dry regions and can be harvested through the use of simple and low-cost collection systems. Captured water can then be used for agricultural irrigation and domestic use. Research suggests that fog collectors work best in locations with frequent fog periods, such as coastal areas where water can be harvested as fog moves inland driven by the wind.
Loss of productivity
Loss of productivity
What are biodigesters?
A biodigester system utilizes organic waste, particularly animal and human excreta, to produce fertilizer and biogas. A biodigester consists of an airtight, high-density polyethylene container within which excreta diluted in water flow continuously and are fermented by microorganisms present in the waste. The fermentation process is anaerobic, i.e., it takes place without oxygen, and the bacteria responsible for decomposition are methanogenic (i.e., they produce methane, also known as biogas).
Chemical contaminants such as nitrogenous wastes found in aquacultures or groundwater may contaminate nearby areas and drinking water supplies. Groundwater pollution may be caused by activities such as industrial waste disposal accidental spills fuel tank leakage or application of fertilizers herbicides or pesticides to crops. Natural causes such as arsenic also may result in groundwater contamination. Organisms are a major cause of water and aqueous environment contamination and are one of the world’s largest health concerns.
The life cycle of higher plants consists of two major phases the vegetative phase and the reproductive (flowering) phase. In general plants store matter and energy in the form of carbohydrate reserves during the vegetative phase and then mobilize these reserves in the development of flowers fruit and seeds during the reproductive phase which is often triggered by various light- and circadian-related factors.
Soil is a fundamental requirement for crop production as it provides plants with anchorage, water and nutrients. A certain supply of mineral and organic nutrient sources is present in soils, but these often have to be supplemented with external applications, or fertilisers, for better plant growth. Fertilisers enhance soil fertility and are applied to promote plant growth, improve crop yields and support agricultural intensification.
Food losses cause a waste of precious resources, including land, water, energy, agricultural inputs, and human labor, used in the production of the lost food. Food loss is caused by a lack of low-cost, effective drying technology to dry food. Currently, over 95 percent of smallholder farmers use open-air drying to dry their crops. While dryers exist, there remains a void for products that are designed to target smallholder farmers.
Researchers at Purdue University have developed an instrument/software that allows remote sensing of surface soil moisture from an airborne instrument using reflective electromagnetic radiation. This can provide the most efficient method to collect measurements and survey an entire field with high spatial density in a short period of time. It makes use of lower-frequency signals which are required to penetrate the soil. Resolution is determined only by the frequency of the signal, under the assumption of a near-specular reflection, not the antenna size.
Soil water plays a critical role in the life of plants. They need adequate water to develop a strong root system and for cooling themselves. Irrigation is about proper timing and maintaining the available water at the appropriate amounts. When soil water drops below proper levels, crop stress develops that lead to loss of both crop quality and yield. Over irrigation contributes to erosion, loss of nutrients and increase input costs. Growsmart provides a growing hardware suite of plug-n-play sensors that are the eyes and ears in your field.
The introduction of new cultivated species and improved varieties of crop is a technology aimed at enhancing plant productivity, quality, health and nutritional value and/or building crop resilience to diseases, pest organisms and environmental stresses. Crop diversification refers to the addition of new crops or cropping systems to agricultural production on a particular farm taking into account the different returns from value-added crops with complementary marketing opportunities. Major driving forces for crop diversification include: