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Declining water availability

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Over 97% of the water on earth is unsuitable for human consumption due to its salinity. The vast majority (about 99%) of this is seawater, with most of the remainder consisting of saline groundwater (US Geological Survey, 2010). Purification of this saline water holds the promise of nearly unlimited water resources for human civilizations in coastal regions. However, purification of seawater is expensive, energy intensive and often has large adverse impacts on ecosystems. Despite these drawbacks, desalination can be an appropriate technological choice in certain settings.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Fogs have the potential to provide an alternative source of fresh water in dry regions and can be harvested through the use of simple and low-cost collection systems. Captured water can then be used for agricultural irrigation and domestic use. Research suggests that fog collectors work best in locations with frequent fog periods, such as coastal areas where water can be harvested as fog moves inland driven by the wind.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Rainfall can provide some of the cleanest naturally occurring water that is available. There is considerable scope for the collection of rainwater when it falls, before huge losses occur due to evaporation, transpiration, and runoff and drainage - before it becomes contaminated by natural means or man-made activities. Rainwater harvesting is a particularly suitable technology for areas where there is no surface water, or where groundwater is deep or inaccessible due to hard ground conditions, or where it is too salty or acidic.

  • Objective

    Water fall pump based on hydrostatic pressure.

    A hydram (hydraulic ram pumps) is an automatic pumping device which utilises a small fall of water to lift a fraction of the supply flow to a much greater height.

  • Objective

    Fog harvesting provides an alternative source of freshwater through a technique used to capture water from wind - driven fog. Fog harvesting systems are typ ically installed in areas where the presence of fog is naturally high, typically coastal and mountainous regions. The systems are usually constructed in the form of a mesh net, stabilized between two posts that are spread out at an angle perpendicular to t he prevailing wind carrying the fog.

  • Objective

    Solvatten is a combined portable water treatment and water heater system that has been designed for off-grid households use in the developing world. It is an easy, innovative solution that gives access to clean, hot water to impoverished people throughout the world. Millions of primarily women and children need to walk dozens of miles every day to fetch water. Reducing the daily use of firewood and having a water source closer to home makes their lives so much easier.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Description

    The amount of water available from a source can vary greatly between seasons, thus it is particularly

    important to ensure sustainable abstraction rates and protect water sources from over-use during dry

    seasons. Seasonal water rationing is an approach to control water use rates amongst different users

    based on the seasonal availability of water and socioeconomic priorities. Rationing may take the form of

    water use restrictions for certain purposes, in certain times, or certain areas. The aim is to maintain

  • Objective
    Technology

    Chemical contaminants such as nitrogenous wastes found in aquacultures or groundwater may contaminate nearby areas and drinking water supplies. Groundwater pollution may be caused by activities such as industrial waste disposal accidental spills fuel tank leakage or application of fertilizers herbicides or pesticides to crops. Natural causes such as arsenic also may result in groundwater contamination. Organisms are a major cause of water and aqueous environment contamination and are one of the world’s largest health concerns.