Solar water distillation

  • Knowledge partner
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise
    Agriculture
    Early warning and Environmental assessment
    Renewable energy
    Energy efficiency

    Practical Action Consulting (PAC) is the consulting arm of Practical Action, an international non-governmental organisation that uses technology to challenge poverty in developing countries.

  • Knowledge partner
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration
    Japan
    Relation to CTCN
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise
    Renewable energy
    Energy efficiency
    Forestry
    Transport
    Waste management

    The Global Environment Centre Foundation (GEC) is an entity that supports the UNEP’s International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC), based in Japan.

  • Objective

    Conventional distillation columns operate by heating with the reboiler at the bottom, and cooling by condenser at the top. SUPERHIDIC technology operates two columns: stripping section (low pressure column) and rectifying section (high pressure column), which realizes interated heat transfer from HP column to LP column).

    Key features are as follows:

    Side-exchanges accomplished by stabbed-in heat exchangers

  • 1. The main principle of Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) is a direct compression of the evaporated vapor to higher pressure thus temperature so it can recycle energy for the heating process in the Evaporator which results is a low consumption of energy. 2. MVR is a distillation process where evaporation of sea or brackish water is obtained by the application of heat delivered by compressed vapor. The MVR system is an energy efficient solution since only 50KWH of electric power per ton of fresh water is required which is merely 5% of required energy for boiling water.

  • With over 100 million tons produced annually oxygen (O2) is among the most widely used commodity chemicals in the world -- and the demand for pure O2 could grow enormously due to its potential use in processes associated with the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel-burning plants. The separation of O2 from air is currently done on a large scale using an energy-intensive cyrogenic distillation process. Zeolites are also used for O2 / N2 separation however this process is inherently inefficient as the materials used adsorb N2 over O2 with poor selectivity.

  • Technology

    One third of the world’s population lacks sufficient water. The World Health Organisation predicts that by 2050 over two thirds of the world’s population will face severe water shortages. The effects of water shortage are well documented: food shortage poor health hunger and disease.

  • Isopropanol (IPA) is an important solvent and cleaning agent with wide applications in semiconductor microelectronic and pharmaceutical industries. IPA is primarily produced by combining water and propene in a hydration reaction. The IPA produced is usually in a mixture with water and distillation is used to obtain IPA with 87.9% purity. Higher purity IPA can only be achieved through azeotropic distillation with cyclohexane or diisopropyl ether. In both cases large amount of energy is used for the purification process.

  • Distillative separation particularly of thermolabile volatile substances is often associated with a significant reduction in quality due to the thermal degradation of the substances being distilled. For example many substances containing plant matter such as essential oils can scarcely be distilled without degradation. State-of-the-art distillation methods are based mainly on steam distillation as a carrier steam distillation for primary extraction which merely results in a complex mixture of substances as essential oil.