Materials and products used in building, such as steel and aluminum, are created by a production process of raw material extraction, raw material process, melting, manufacture to final products, and transportation to building sites. Each of the steps consumes energy, which is also expressed in terms of carbon emissions. Total carbon emissions of all building materials and products and the construction involved to put them together is known as building’s embodied carbon. Embodied carbon accounts for about 20% of the carbon emissions from the building sector (Lane, 2010).
Peat carbon management
Peat carbon management
Land management options for mitigation fall in the following four categories: a) cropland management; b) grazing land management/pasture improvement; c) management of agricultural lands and d) restoration of degraded lands. This description focuses on the restoration of degraded lands. Within this description, a differentiation is made between a) management of organic and peaty soils and b) restoration of other degraded lands.
Certifying Destruction: Why consumer companies need to go beyond the RSPO to stop forest destructionType:PublicationPublication date:
The focus of this report is the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), which was formed in 2004 to promote the use of sustainable palm. RSPO members account for around 40 per cent of global palm oil production.
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In late 2009, Indonesia made a voluntary commitment to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26 per cent by 2020, or by 41 per cent with international assistance, compared to business as usual. The country aims to achieve 87 per cent of this goal by reducing emissions from deforestation and peatland conversion. In a step towards achieving these emission reductions, a decree was signed in 2011 putting into effect a two-year moratorium on issuing new permits for use of primary natural forest and peatland.
Development of Financing and Incentive Options for Sustainable Management of Peatland Forests in Southeast AsiaType:PublicationPublication date:Sectors:
According to this report, peatlands are the largest carbon store in the terrestrial biosphere, containing twice as much carbon as all the world"s forests combined. There are an estimated 25 million hectares of peatland in the South-East Asian region, making it the most dominant wetland forest type. The objectives of this report are to review and develop potential financing and economic incentive options at the regional or country level to support the protection and sustainable management of peatlands, particularly in South-East Asia.
Effects of decentralized forest management (DFM) on deforestation and poverty in low and middle income countries: a systematic reviewType:PublicationPublication date:
Natural forest preservation in the tropics, and thus in developing countries, must be an element of any effective effort to manage climate change. Forests serve as natural carbon sinks, which help to mitigate the effect of other carbon emissions. However, forest cover is being reduced and it is estimated that deforestation is responsible for 10-17 per cent of global carbon emissions.
Forest carbon stocks in woody plants of Tara Gedam Forest: Implication for climate change mitigationType:PublicationPublication date:
The overall objective of this study was to estimate the carbon stock potentials of Tara Gedam forest, Ethiopia, as potential sink for climate change mitigation. Forest plays an important role in the global carbon cycle as carbon sinks of the terrestrial ecosystem. The data was collected from the field by measuring plants with a DBH of >5cm and the carbon stocks of each plant were analysed. The highest carbon stock was found in the western aspect and the lowest in northwest aspect.
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The assumption that plants can absorb excessive fossil fuel emissions containing carbon dioxide because they need the gas in order to grow is challenged in this paper.These researchers report that increased levels of carbon dioxide (when combined with the other effects of climate change) actually suppress growth rather than helping plants to flourish. The three-year field experiment was unusual in looking at the effects of temperature, rainfall and nitrogen deposits, as well as carbon dioxide, in an attempt to mimic future climate conditions as accurately as possible.
This article gives an overview about low-carbon building materials. This includes sections about the feasibility of the technology and operational necessities, the status of the technology and its future market potential, how the technology could contribute to socio-economic development and environmental problems and financial requirements and costs.
Recommendations for government negotiators to effectively include harvested wood products within the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)Type:PublicationPublication date:
This paper describes the important carbon storage and substitution benefits of Harvested Wood Products (HWP). It notes that HWP from forests that are sustainably managed contribute to climate mitigation. HWP and biomass energy from sustainably managed forests can also contribute to adaptation as part of the transition to a low-carbon and resource-efficient economy. The paper reviews the current situation of Cancun and Bonn texts regarding HWP. It notes that the Cancun decision calls for the development of forest management reference levels.