Modal shift in freight transport
The modal split for freight transport varies greatly by region, and is largely determined by geographical and economic factors. However there is a common trend towards more use of road transport, at the expense of rail and water transport. The latter modes have a substantially better environmental profile, but are limited by longer delivery times and the necessity of pre- and post-haulage by truck, i.e. inter-modal transport. In the logistic chain used nowadays, there are small local stocks and fast on demand delivery is required.