Stanford researchers have developed a method for converting ammonia in wastewater into nitrogen gas while simultaneously generating power in a bioreactor system. This method produces energy from carbon and nitrogen waste and provides significant cost and energy savings over current options.
Enteric fermentation is a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by microorganisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of an animal.
- Type:OrganisationKnowledge partnerCountry of registration:CanadaRelation to CTCN:Network MemberKnowledge Partner
Viresco Solutions is a consulting firm based in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Its core business is greenhouse gas offset policy development and implementation, greenhouse gas emissions quantification, sustainable supply chain development, environmental offset methodology development, and providing technical assistance to others undertaking carbon offset project development. Its clients include industry and non-governmental associations, large private sector companies, and local, provincial and federal governments.
Livestock are important sources of methane. The United States Environmental Protection Agency calculated that livestock, especially ruminants such as cattle and sheep, account for approximately one-third of global anthropogenic emissions of methane (US-EPA, 2006). The methane is produced primarily through the process of enteric fermentation and released through the process of eructation (Crutzen, 1995). In addition, N2O emissions are generated by livestock through secretion of nitrogen through the urine and faeces.
Under the anaerobic (oxygen free) conditions of landfill sites, organic waste is broken down by micro-organisms, leading to the formation of landfill gas (LFG). LFG is a gaseous mixture which consists mostly of methane and carbon dioxide, but also of a small amount of hydrogen and occasionally trace levels of hydrogen sulphide.
Fertiliser and manure management in rice fields are important methane mitigation technologies. The fertiliser management mitigation option includes changes in: fertiliser types; fertiliser nutrient ratios; the rates and timing of applications; and use of nitrification inhibitors to reduce methane emissions by affecting methanogenesis in rice fields. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.
Background: Producing biofuel on a useful scale requires efficient fermentation of cellulosic plant material. The sugars glucose and xylose are the most abundant carbohydrates found in hemicellulose. The yeast most commonly utilized for industrial fermentation – Saccharomyces cerevisiae – can ferment glucose but not xylose. By studying the genomes of wild strains of yeast capable of utilizing both sugars researchers hope to identify genes capable of enhancing fermentation. The ultimate goal is to create a genetically modified ‘super-strain’ ideal for industrial ethanol production.
There has been an increased emphasis on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). A technology proposed to serve the purpose of utilization of greenhouse gases is the catalytic reforming of CH4 with CO2 to produce syngas. The major issue impeding the development of this reaction is its high tendency towards carbon formation which will quickly deactivate conventional catalysts used for reforming reactions when steam or oxygen is not present to eliminate deposited carbon.
Alkanes produced from carbohydrates could provide a renewable source of transportation fuel to complement the rapidly growing production of bio-diesel from vegetable oils and animal fats. UW-Madison researchers have developed a practical and energy-efficient catalytic process for producing high-quality long-chain liquid fuels from carbohydrates. The multi-stage process uses combinations of self- and crossed-aldol condensation reactions dehydration reactions and hydrogenation reactions to yield alkane alkene and ether products.
Background: Calixarene-type compounds and self-assembled and spherical hexamers of calixarene derivatives have been proposed for various applications. Typically these compounds’ structures are maintained through stronger chemical bonding such as covalent bonding or hydrogen bonding. Technology Description: The present invention describes the use of self-assembled calixarene guest-host assemblies utilizing the weaker van der Waal forces for structural stability and guest confinement. These guest-host assemblies have shown high temperature stability.
- Type:National PlanType of National plan:Country:Latvia