Constructed wetlands

  • Objective

    The largest and northern most full-scale system for wastewater irrigation of Salix plantations in Sweden.
    The local community in Hedemora has long experience in producing biofuel from Salix plantations. The cooperation between Hedemora Energi AB and local farmers has resulted in irrigation of 75 acres of Salix Plantations. The local farmers in the project are guaranteed to sell their biofuel to the local municipal heating plant. As a result the project is contributing to the local production and consumption.

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    Objective
    Sectors

    This article analyses factors that contribute to the livelihood of smallholder farmers living near the Cyabayaga and Rugeramigoziwetlands. Three tools were used: focus group discussion, formal surveys and Monitoring for Quality Improvement (MONQI). Farming systems in wetlands and on hillsides differ. Level of education, resource availability, land ownership and location have important impacts on the location and type of farming systems practised by households. The dependency of households on wetlands varies between sites.

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    Objective
    Approach

    This paper summarises the importance of wetlands in relation to climate change and eaxmines their potential role in the measures for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) under the Kyoto Protocol. The links between REDD concepts and wetlands are explored for the following reasons:

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    Objective
    Sectors

    According to this report, peatlands are the largest carbon store in the terrestrial biosphere, containing twice as much carbon as all the world"s forests combined. There are an estimated 25 million hectares of peatland in the South-East Asian region, making it the most dominant wetland forest type. The objectives of this report are to review and develop potential financing and economic incentive options at the regional or country level to support the protection and sustainable management of peatlands, particularly in South-East Asia.

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    Objective

    Poor people living in hazardous and unhealthy environments in urban areas may find their difficulties compounded by the consequences of climate change. These include those who construct their shelters on steep, unstable hillsides, or along the foreshore on former mangrove swamps or tidal flats.

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    Objective

    A key cross sectoral challenge for Pakistan is to build a resilient interrelated socio economic and ecological system.

    Despite the generally arid nature of Pakistan's climate, 10 per cent (780,000 ha) of the total surface area of the country is covered by wetlands which are of global importance (GOP, IUCN and WWF, 2000). Due to growing population pressures and habitat loss exacerbated by climate change, the wetlands are facing increasing pressures.

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    Objective

    The conversion of wetlands to agriculture through drainage and flooding, and the burning of wetland areas for agriculture have important implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) production and changing carbon stocks. However, the estimation of net GHG changes from mitigation practices in agricultural wetlands is complex compared to dryland crops. Agricultural wetlands have more complicated carbon and nitrogen cycles with both above- and below-ground processes and export of carbon via vertical and horizontal movement of water through the wetland.

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    Objective
    Sectors

    This paper describes the challenges surrounding current and future water use in the tropical Andes by first reviewing the modern and future projected hydrological cycle and anticipated impacts on environmental services provided by glaciers and wetland vegetation. The discussion then elaborates on the current tensions and conflicts surrounding water use from a social and economic perspective and ends by focusing on the challenges ahead and looking at possible solutions for more sustainable and equitable future water use in the region.