Fuel cells are used to produce electricity. They are considered a promising technology to replace conventional combustion engines in vehicles. Fuel cells may also replace batteries in portable electronic equipment. The most widely used types of fuel cells for mobile devices are Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEM FC) which are often used in vehicles, and Direct Methanol fuel cells, used in portable applications. PEM fuel cells use hydrogen or certain alcohols such as methanol as fuel.
Hybrid technology systems combine two or more technologies with the aim to achieve efficient systems. Possible combinations are: wind-solar photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems, wind-diesel hybrid systems, fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid systems, wind-fuel cell hybrid systems, etc. (see the short descriptions below). Hybrid systems combine numerous electricity production and storage units to meet the energy demands of a given facility or community (Solar Energy Technologies Program, 2006).
- Type:OrganisationKnowledge partnerCountry of registration:JapanRelation to CTCN:Network MemberKnowledge Partner
The Global Environment Centre Foundation (GEC) is an entity that supports the UNEP’s International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC), based in Japan. GEC is dedicated to the transfer of environmentally sound technologies, in both developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The foundation aims to contribute to Japan’s international efforts on the environment, sharing project collaborations as well as promoting Japan’s rich conservation knowledge and experience in developing nations.
- Type:OrganisationKnowledge partnerCountry of registration:SwedenRelation to CTCN:Network MemberKnowledge Partner
Solvatten provides combined portable water treatment and solar water heater system that has been designed for use at the household level in the developing world. It is made of durable plastic materials and requires no batteries, chemicals or spare parts and treats water harnessing the power of the sun. The unit has an average lifespan of 7-10 years. Lasting a childhood, Solvatten tackles health, environment, and savings using green energy.
- Type:PublicationPublication date:Objective:Approach:
This report evaluate the state of preparedness for climate change adaptation in southern Africa. It is aimed at supporting the demands of state and non-state southern African actors for climate change adaptation finance and the efficient administration of such funds. The report details the findings of a desk study evaluating the state of knowledge on climate change vulnerability and adaptation preparedness in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe currently has no specific policy responseto climate change.
Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emission Control (ESBEC) is a device for capturing airborne particulate matter emissions from a variety of mobile and stationary sources such as diesel engines used in automobiles marine engines agricultural equipment power generation equipment etc. The ESBEC collects and allows for subsequent removal of collected airborne particulate matter using a wire mesh screen coated with superhydrophobic material and supplied with high voltage.
Many cathode materials for lithium batteries consist of large particles that are homogenous in size due to current synthesis methods for LiFePO4 (LFP) particles. These homogenized LFP particles in the lithium batteries cause stress concentrators that degrade the mechanical properties of the LFP particles during charging and discharging. This continuous charging and discharging of the LFP particles in the battery leads to cracking and eventually failure of the cathodes.
Significant research is conducted to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of energy generated by renewable resources. Existing photovoltaic cells and conventional photoelectrochemical cells convert solar energy to electrical energy but are not capable of directly storing the converted energy. Storage of converted energy must be facilitated through connection to an external device such as a rechargeable battery. This increases complexity and decreases overall efficiency of the system. Furthermore batteries require additional space and have life cycle limitations.
Background: Batteries convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy and typically are divided into two broad classes primary and secondary. Primary batteries such as alkaline batteries convert stored chemical energy to electrical energy by oxidation and reduction reactions that result in geochemically unfavorable restructuring and depletion of chemical reactants. When the initial supply of chemical reactants is exhausted the battery cannot be readily recharged. Secondary batteries such as lithium-ion batteries also convert stored chemical energy to electrical energy.