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Ammonia

Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building-block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals and is used in many commercial cleaning products. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. The global production of ammonia for 2012 is anticipated to be 198 million tonnes, a 35% increase over the estimated 2006 global output of 146.5 million tonnes. Ammonia, as used commercially, is often called anhydrous ammonia. This term emphasizes the absence of water in the material. Because NH3 boils at ?33.34??C (?28.012??F) at a pressure of 1 atmosphere, the liquid must be stored under high pressure or at low temperature. 'Household ammonia' or 'ammonium hydroxide' is a solution of NH3 in water. The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baum? scale, with 26 degrees baum? (about 30% ammonia at 15.5??C) being the typical high-concentration commercial product.

Ammonia

  • High Rate of Microbial Production of N2O for Energy Generation

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    Product
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    Stanford researchers have developed a method for converting ammonia in wastewater into nitrogen gas while simultaneously generating power in a bioreactor system. This method produces energy from carbon and nitrogen waste and provides significant cost and energy savings over current options.

  • Climate Change in The La Plata Basin

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    Publication
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    The objective of this book is to raise awareness in the hydrologic community of the important changes that have occurred in the climate and hydrology of the La Plata basin during recent decades. In a context of global climate change and of great regional changes, the assumption that series of climatological and hydrological observations are stationary must be regarded with suspicion. This book therefore presents an overview of the few available techniques for assessing future climate and hydrology.

  • Ammonia

    Type: 
    Technology
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    Objective:

    Ammonia is the main product of the fertilizer industry. Developing countries account for the majority of worldwide production. About 77% of ammonia production is based on steam reforming of natural gas, with most of the remaining production based on heavy-oil or coal-based processes. A further shift from heavy-oil or coal-based to gas-based processes can strongly reduce energy use and emissions.

  • Biogas power

    Type: 
    Technology
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    Objective:

    Responds to the following needs

    • Diversification of energy sources
    • Cleaner energy sources
    • Reduced GHG emissions

    Suitable for

  • Emissions of Fluorinated Substitues for Ozone Depleting Substances

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    HFCs and, to a very limited extent, PFCs, are serving as alternatives to ozone-depleting substances (ODS) being phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Current and expected application areas of HFCs and PFCs include: refrigeration and air conditioning, fire suppression and explosion protection, aerosols, solvent cleaning and foam blowing. This chapter of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories provides a general framework and specialized guidance for estimating emissions from ODS substitutes and their different applications.

  • Chemical Industry Emissions

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    This chapter in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories gives guidance for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that result from the production of various inorganic and organic chemicals. It covers emissions from the production of ammonia; nitric acid; adipic acid, caprolactam, glyoxal and glyoxylic acid; carbide; titanium dioxide; soda ash; key processes in the petrochemical and carbon black production; and fluorochemical production. It focuses on non-energy-related emissions and assumes no carbon dioxide capture and storage.

  • Fuel Switch in the Ammonia Industry

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    Publication
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    This article gives a short overview of fuel switching in the ammonia industry. This includes the feasibility of the technology and operational necessities, the status of the technology and its future market potential, how the technology could contribute to socio-economic development and environmental problems and financial requirements and costs.