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Ammonia

Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building-block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals and is used in many commercial cleaning products. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. The global production of ammonia for 2012 is anticipated to be 198 million tonnes, a 35% increase over the estimated 2006 global output of 146.5 million tonnes. Ammonia, as used commercially, is often called anhydrous ammonia. This term emphasizes the absence of water in the material. Because NH3 boils at ?33.34??C (?28.012??F) at a pressure of 1 atmosphere, the liquid must be stored under high pressure or at low temperature. 'Household ammonia' or 'ammonium hydroxide' is a solution of NH3 in water. The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baum? scale, with 26 degrees baum? (about 30% ammonia at 15.5??C) being the typical high-concentration commercial product.

Ammonia

  • Climate Change in The La Plata Basin

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    The objective of this book is to raise awareness in the hydrologic community of the important changes that have occurred in the climate and hydrology of the La Plata basin during recent decades. In a context of global climate change and of great regional changes, the assumption that series of climatological and hydrological observations are stationary must be regarded with suspicion. This book therefore presents an overview of the few available techniques for assessing future climate and hydrology.

  • Novel Non-Carbonaceous Supports for PEMFC Electrocatalysts

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    Background: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are the best candidates for cars buildings and other small applications. The advantage of these types of fuel cells is that they can operate at relatively low temperatures and can vary their output to meet shifting power demands. Market potential is high because of fuel cells’ abilities as portable generators and batteries in military and other applications as off-grid power systems for homes and businesses and in powering automobiles.

  • Non-toxic Low Cost Nitrogen Fixation by Titanium Dioxide

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    Dr. Glenn Miller within the University of Nevada Reno Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science (NRES) focuses on the transport and transformation of organic and inorganic compounds. Dr. Miller’s lab has a long-term interest in the environmental photochemistry of organic compounds and recently is focusing on the photolysis of pesticides on soil surfaces and in the gas phase. They are also working on a variety of projects related to contamination from mining sites both from current precious metals mining sites and historic mines.

  • Ion Exchanged Pillared Clays for Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide

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    This technology is capable of selectively reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) potent greenhouse gases that are produced during combustion of fossil fuels. The catalyst by employing pillared interlayered clay structures more efficiently reduces nitrogen oxides and is more compatible with sulfur-containing fuels than the vanadia based commercial catalysts currently available. Nitrogen oxides are produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and emitted in the resulting exhaust gas streams. They are potent greenhouse gases and considered a toxic pollutant.

  • High Rate of Microbial Production of Nitrous Oxide for Energy Generation

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    Stanford researchers have developed a method for converting ammonia in wastewater into nitrogen gas while simultaneously generating power in a bioreactor system. This method produces energy from carbon and nitrogen waste and provides significant cost and energy savings over current options.

  • Process for precipitation of high-resistance particles from an aerosoleln aus einem Aerosol

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    Electrical precipitators are used to precipitate particles out of gas streams in a process for which the electrical resistance of the particles plays a decisive role in how the precipitator functions. An electrical precipitator is suitable for precipitating particulate matter with a specific electrical resistance within a range. Particulate matter with higher electrical resistance causes what is called a Â"back coronaÂ" which severely disrupts the precipitation process.

  • Consulting and engineering services for water resources management

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    The company provides 1. Water and Wastewater consulting services 2. Monitoring system: Usage of horizontal motion of our system across Aeration Basin to programmable monitor - Dissolved Oxygen % Temperature Optional: Ammonia and more - in order to better control air inlets.

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies

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    The climate modeling program at GISS is primarily aimed at the development of coupled atmosphere-ocean models for simulating Earth's climate system. Primary emphasis is placed on investigation of climate sensitivity --globally and regionally--including the climate system's response to diverse forcings such as solar variability, volcanoes, anthropogenic and natural emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols and paleo-climate changes.

  • Fuel Switch in the Ammonia Industry

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    This article gives a short overview of fuel switching in the ammonia industry. This includes the feasibility of the technology and operational necessities, the status of the technology and its future market potential, how the technology could contribute to socio-economic development and environmental problems and financial requirements and costs.