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Ammonia

Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building-block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals and is used in many commercial cleaning products. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. The global production of ammonia for 2012 is anticipated to be 198 million tonnes, a 35% increase over the estimated 2006 global output of 146.5 million tonnes. Ammonia, as used commercially, is often called anhydrous ammonia. This term emphasizes the absence of water in the material. Because NH3 boils at ?33.34??C (?28.012??F) at a pressure of 1 atmosphere, the liquid must be stored under high pressure or at low temperature. 'Household ammonia' or 'ammonium hydroxide' is a solution of NH3 in water. The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baum? scale, with 26 degrees baum? (about 30% ammonia at 15.5??C) being the typical high-concentration commercial product.

Ammonia

  • High Rate of Microbial Production of N2O for Energy Generation

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    Stanford researchers have developed a method for converting ammonia in wastewater into nitrogen gas while simultaneously generating power in a bioreactor system. This method produces energy from carbon and nitrogen waste and provides significant cost and energy savings over current options.

  • Climate Change in The La Plata Basin

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    The objective of this book is to raise awareness in the hydrologic community of the important changes that have occurred in the climate and hydrology of the La Plata basin during recent decades. In a context of global climate change and of great regional changes, the assumption that series of climatological and hydrological observations are stationary must be regarded with suspicion. This book therefore presents an overview of the few available techniques for assessing future climate and hydrology.

  • Simultaneous determination of trace heavy metals in ambient aerosols

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    The simultaneous determination of heavy metals associated with airborne particulate matter in the atmosphere of the city Isfahan (Iran) was performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after pre-concentration with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. The preconcentration procedure developed found instrumental to determine the trace heavy metals associated with ambient aerosols collected at a short sampling period or collected from rural areas where the concentrations of these metals are much less than those in urban areas.

  • Engineering Synthetic Methylotrophy to Generate Liquid Fuels and Desirable Chemicals

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    This invention utilizes a model organism Escherichia coli and incorporates genes that synthetically allows the organism to utilize methanol and carbon dioxide to produce acetyl-coA which can then be used to generate liquid fuels or other desirable chemicals. By virtue of such modifications the model organism Escherichia coli turns into a synthetic methylotroph which can utilize methanol and carbon dioxide for growth and production of chemicals.

  • Tape drive cleaning composition

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    A water based cleaning composition suitable for use in tape drives including very small quantities of a surfactant preferably a tridecyl alcohol ether of polyoxyethylene and an ionic salt of ammonia is disclosed. The quantity of surfactant is such that it is totally water soluble and furthermore does not exist as a free solvent susceptible to evaporation into the environment. The combination of the surfactant and an ionic salt of ammonia preferably ammonium carbonate enhances detergency and the suspension of debris without leaving a residue.

  • Boron and Lithium Isotopic Method for Tracing Hydrocarbons and Their By-Products

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    Background: As petroleum consumption continues to rise the world is turning to unconventional oil sources such as kerogen shale and bituminous sands in order to keep up with global demand. Satellite imagery gravity meters and magnetometers are typically used to pinpoint ideal locations for drilling over conventional oil or gas reserves. However differentiating unconventional oil sources from other layers of rock is difficult due to their similar densities so instead organic biomarkers are used to trace hydrocarbons (and their by-products) back to their source rock.

  • Natural gas combined cycle plants

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    Fuel switching, or the replacement of fossil fuels with a high carbon content with low-carbon fuels, is one of the principal methods suggested to reduce CO2 emissions from energy consumption in the near future. Since natural gas has a lower carbon content than coal or oil, switching from coal to gas as the primary fuel for electricity generation can result in a 50% reduction of CO2 emissions per kWh

  • Novel Non-Carbonaceous Supports for PEMFC Electrocatalysts

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    Background: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are the best candidates for cars buildings and other small applications. The advantage of these types of fuel cells is that they can operate at relatively low temperatures and can vary their output to meet shifting power demands. Market potential is high because of fuel cells’ abilities as portable generators and batteries in military and other applications as off-grid power systems for homes and businesses and in powering automobiles.

  • Non-toxic Low Cost Nitrogen Fixation by Titanium Dioxide

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    Dr. Glenn Miller within the University of Nevada Reno Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science (NRES) focuses on the transport and transformation of organic and inorganic compounds. Dr. Miller’s lab has a long-term interest in the environmental photochemistry of organic compounds and recently is focusing on the photolysis of pesticides on soil surfaces and in the gas phase. They are also working on a variety of projects related to contamination from mining sites both from current precious metals mining sites and historic mines.