Filter by country

Filter by country

Filter by objective

Filter by approach

Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building-block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals and is used in many commercial cleaning products. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. The global production of ammonia for 2012 is anticipated to be 198 million tonnes, a 35% increase over the estimated 2006 global output of 146.5 million tonnes. Ammonia, as used commercially, is often called anhydrous ammonia. This term emphasizes the absence of water in the material. Because NH3 boils at ?33.34??C (?28.012??F) at a pressure of 1 atmosphere, the liquid must be stored under high pressure or at low temperature. 'Household ammonia' or 'ammonium hydroxide' is a solution of NH3 in water. The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baum? scale, with 26 degrees baum? (about 30% ammonia at 15.5??C) being the typical high-concentration commercial product.

Ammonia

  • Technology

    Stanford researchers have developed a method for converting ammonia in wastewater into nitrogen gas while simultaneously generating power in a bioreactor system. This method produces energy from carbon and nitrogen waste and provides significant cost and energy savings over current options.

  • Publication date
    Objective
    Sectors

    The objective of this book is to raise awareness in the hydrologic community of the important changes that have occurred in the climate and hydrology of the La Plata basin during recent decades. In a context of global climate change and of great regional changes, the assumption that series of climatological and hydrological observations are stationary must be regarded with suspicion. This book therefore presents an overview of the few available techniques for assessing future climate and hydrology.

  • Publication date
    Objective

    This chapter in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories gives guidance for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that result from the production of various inorganic and organic chemicals. It covers emissions from the production of ammonia; nitric acid; adipic acid, caprolactam, glyoxal and glyoxylic acid; carbide; titanium dioxide; soda ash; key processes in the petrochemical and carbon black production; and fluorochemical production. It focuses on non-energy-related emissions and assumes no carbon dioxide capture and storage.

  • Publication date
    Objective
    Sectors

    HFCs and, to a very limited extent, PFCs, are serving as alternatives to ozone-depleting substances (ODS) being phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Current and expected application areas of HFCs and PFCs include: refrigeration and air conditioning, fire suppression and explosion protection, aerosols, solvent cleaning and foam blowing. This chapter of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories provides a general framework and specialized guidance for estimating emissions from ODS substitutes and their different applications.

  • Publication date
    Objective

    Initiated by the detection of the so called “ozone hole” over the Antarctic, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer came into force in 1987. The Protocol regulates the phase-out of production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in refrigeration and air conditioning. This phase-out has led to the introduction of new, environmental-friendly technologies in industrialized countries.

  • Publication date
    Objective

    The handbook contains 31 articles by individual authors covering the following issues: policies and legislation on F-gases and related issues (Part 1), safety concerns and means to overcome (Part 2), a technical assessment of natural refrigerants in different applications (air conditioning, commercial and industrial refrigeration and heat pumps) (Part 3), and case studies by manufacturers and end-users providing insights into market developments and examples of successful conversions to natural refrigerants (Part 4).

  • Technology

    A method for converting ammonia in wastewater into nitrogen gas while simultaneously generating power in a bioreactor system. This method produces energy from carbon and nitrogen waste and provides significant cost and energy savings over current options. Using bacteria in carefully controlled aerobic and anoxic reaction phases the organisms in the bioreactor convert ammonia into nitrite in a first stage at an extremely low dissolved oxygen level and subsequently convert nitrite into nitrous oxide gas in a second anoxic stage through either biotic or abiotic mechanisms.