Connecting countries to climate technology solutions
English Arabic Chinese (Simplified) French Russian Spanish Yoruba

Zambia

Official Name:
Republic of Zambia

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Name:
Mr. Ben Makayi
Position:
Senior Science and Technology Officer
Phone:
+260 211 252073, +260 977 344993
Emails:
makayinjamba2004@gmail.com

Energy profile

Zambia (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

In 2009, approximately 18.8% of the Zambian population had electricity access. In 2008, the urban access rate was 44%, with the rural access rate being just 2.2%.Only 16.7% of households in Zambia have access to electricity. The majority of the population relies heavily on charcoal and firewood for heating and cooking, whilst candles and kerosene are used for lighting.The major power stations are linked via a transmission and distribution network of 2,008 km of 330 kV lines, 548 km of 220 kV lines, 85 km of 132 kV lines, 704 km of 88 kV lines, and 3,014 km of 66 kV lines. Further distribution occurs on over 6,500 km of 33 kV and 11 kV lines.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyAverage solar insolation is roughly 5.5 kWh/m²/day, with approximately 3,000 sunshine hours annually, providing good potential for solar thermal and photovoltaic exploitation. Solar power has previously been proposed as a cost-effective method for rural electrification and a compliment to existing auto-generation in the country. NAPS, a Finland-based company, is planning to set up a solar energy plant in Zambia to provide cost-effective solar kits for people in various parts of the country, in an effort to remove barriers between local solar dealers and manufacturers. Development of the country’s solar resource is still slow, although numerous past projects have proven the effectiveness of solar technology, for example European Union-funded installations in healthcare centres.Wind energyWind speeds average 2.5m/s at 10m above the ground, a speed which is mainly suitable for mechanical applications. Seven areas have been identified as viable for off-grid wind power generation, although little development has occurred. Biomass energy Woodlands and forests are estimated to cover about 50 million hectares or 66 percent of Zambia's total land area. 341,000 units of biogas digesters are currently operational in the country. With ample forest coverage, and dedicated support from the government, an integrated household-level biogas program is a possibility in the country. Bio-gasification is most common in urban compounds. Sugar cane is being grown in three provinces, and processed by three different companies with a projected capacity of 483,000 tonnes of sugar per year. At present no ethanol is being produced by the main sugar growing companies, but Lee Yeast Ltd in Kafue (Lusaka Province) produces ethanol from molasses purchased from Zambia Sugar Plc.Geothermal energy Zambia has geothermal energy potential, although it has not been examined in great detail. Geothermal power installations have been constructed, totalling some 200 kW, but only as a means for assessing potential, and never on a large scale. Over 80 hot springs exist at the 200 kW Kapishya Plant, located in Sumbu on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. More recent surveys were carried out by KENGEN, the Kenyan electricity generation utility.Hydropower  Small hydro potential stands at 4 MW. An estimated 17,233 GWh/year was deemed to be economically feasible in 1991. Zambia has an estimated large-hydro power potential of 6,000MW, of which less than 2,000MW has been harnessed. Sites yet to be developed include Kafue Gorge Lower, Itezhi Tezhi, Kalungwishi, Mambilima, Batoka Gorge, Devil’s Gorge, Kabompo, and others.

Energy framework

The development plans based on the Energy Policy 1994, and the succeeding policy in May 2008, have put more emphasis on grid hydro-electricity compared to other renewable energy technologies. These plans include the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), Transitional National Development Plan (TNDP) (2002-2005), the Fifth National Development Plan (FNDP) (2006-2010), and the Sixth National Development Plan (2011-2015). The PRSP acknowledges the importance of harnessing renewable energy resources to meet the country’s energy needs.  However, no investment strategy or targets for renewable energy technologies are defined in the PRSP and the main focus is on hydropower. The Sixth NDP sets out specific goals for the energy sector, including increasing capacity by 1,000 MW compared to 2010 levels, improving rural and national electrification to 15% and 40% respectively, and increasing the capacity of petroleum bulk storage facilities, to enable the storage of 30 days of strategic stock. Programme goals under the NDP include:implementing a cost-effective electricity tariff regime,establishing an open and non-discriminatory transmission access regime in the sector,introducing and appropriate cost-effective renewable energy feed-in tariff,promoting the use of biogas for cooking, lighting and electricity generation,increase biofuel substitution for mineral oil to 10%, anddevelop a Biomass Energy Strategy, to improve the sustainability and effectiveness of biomass supply.Also covered under the Sixth NDP are plans to further implement the Rural Electrification Master Plan (REMP), build capacity in the engineering sector for energy efficiency and develop an Energy Efficiency Plan, and further develop the environmental technology industry in the country, with an incentive framework.The National Energy Policy 2008 also sets out a number of policy measures for renewable energy, including the investigation of RE potentials, the strengthening of the institutional framework for RE research and development, and the provision of financial and fiscal implements for the stimulation of RE deployment.Energy & Environmental Concerns for Zambia (EECZ), a grouping of researchers, academics and policy makers have the following objectives:- To contribute to the development, promotion and wider use of energy in a sustainable manner,- To provide a forum for interaction and exchange of ideas between individuals and organisations involved in the planning, development and sustainable utilisation of energy,- To foster education, scientific research and development and the nation-wide dissemination of information in energy and the environment.The Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP), in association with the Department of Energy, and the Ministry of Energy and Water Development, are working on a mechanism to increase access to reliable, affordable, and environmentally sustainable energy services as a means of enhancing economic and social development.

Source
Static Source:
  • Good Practice Study on GHG-Inventories for the Waste Sector in Non-Annex l Countries

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    The study aims to provide comprehensive guidance to policy makers and practitioners in developing countries [Non-Annex I countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)] for the preparation of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories for the waste sector. Though GHG emissions from the waste sector are still comparatively low compared to other sectors, they are continuously rising in developing countries due to changing production and consumption patterns. Experience shows that emissions from this sector can be reduced significantly at relatively low costs.

  • Broschüre “Cool bleiben: Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Wachstum, Kühlung und Klimawandel“

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    1. Steigender Energiebedarf und ein Recht auf Kühlung? Darf es ihn geben, den Anspruch auf eine Klimaanlage und einen Kühlschrank – ähnlich wie das Recht auf eine Heizung? 2. Kühle Kette für eine gesunde Versorgung Nach Schätzungen der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) verderben durchschnittlich 30 Prozent, in tropischen Ländern sogar 50 Prozent der Lebensmittel mangels angemessener Lagerung. 3. Grüne Technik und Wertschöpfung Das Zauberwort heißt Ressourceneffizienz. Der Schlüssel in der Kältetechnik dafür sind natürliche Gase. 4.

  • Buenas Practicas de refrigeración

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This manual should provide professional guidance on how to service and maintain refrigeration systems operating with new technology, e.g. ozone- and climate-friendly alternative refrigerants to CFCs and HCFCs. It addresses essential know-how on containment of HFC refrigerants which have a high global warming potential (GWP) and provides information on the safe use of environmental-friendly natural refrigerants, such as CO2, ammonia or hydrocarbons.

  • Cool und nachhaltig: Kühlung in der internationalen Zusammenarbeit

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Kühlschrank und Klimaanlage – sie stehen ganz oben auf der Wunschliste von Menschen in heißen Ländern. Bis zum Jahr 2030 rechnet die Internationale Energieagentur (IEA) mit einem viermal höheren Energiebedarf für Klimatisierung in den Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern im Vergleich zu heute. Auch werden oft chemisch hergestellte Gase als Kühlmittel eingesetzt. Sie schädigen die Ozonschicht und treiben den Klimawandel voran. Grüne Technologien nutzen hingegen natürliche Gase zur Kälteerzeugung, sind energieeffizienter und können mit Sonnen- oder Windkraft betrieben werden.

  • Cool and sustainable: Refrigeration and international cooperation

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Refrigerators and air conditioning units feature high on the wish lists of people in hot countries. The International Energy Agency (IEA) calculates that by the year 2030 the energy consumption for air conditioning in developing countries and emerging nations will be four times what it is today. It is often the case that the gases used as refrigerants are produced chemically. They are damaging to the ozone layer and accelerate climate change. By contrast green technologies use natural gases in the cooling process, are more energy efficient and can be driven by sun or wind power.

  • Factsheet: Green Cooling Initiative

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Due to the rising temperatures, population, urbanization and economic growth, the demand of cooling and air conditioning is steadily increasing. The “Green Cooling Network” was established in order to promote a dialogue between stakeholders from industries, policy, research and non-governmental organizations. The project aims to implement the Cancun decisions to build efficient processes and structures that serve to accelerate the technology transfer for mitigation and adaptation in developing countries.

  • Factsheet: Proklima - Green cooling for a warming world

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Almost as much energy is used for refrigeration, air conditioning and insulation worldwide as for transport or heating. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the GIZ ‘Proklima’ project has now been working for some 15 years to help introduce environment- and climate-friendly alternatives to ozonedepleting industrial gases (such as chlorofluorocarbon, CFCs) in partner countries. Proklima thus supports developing and emerging countries in fulfilling their obligations arising from the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer.

  • Factsheet: Proklima - Protection of the ozone layer, Technology transfer with cooperation with private industry

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Initiated by the detection of the so called “ozone hole” over the Antarctic, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer came into force in 1987. The Protocol regulates the phase-out of production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in refrigeration and air conditioning. This phase-out has led to the introduction of new, environmental-friendly technologies in industrialized countries.

  • Good Practices in Refrigeration

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This manual should provide professional guidance on how to service and maintain refrigeration systems operating with new technology, e.g. ozone- and climate-friendly alternative refrigerants to CFCs and HCFCs. It addresses essential know-how on containment of HFC refrigerants which have a high global warming potential (GWP) and provides information on the safe use of environmental-friendly natural refrigerants, such as CO2, ammonia or hydrocarbons.