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Uzbekistan

Official Name:
Republic of Uzbekistan
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Specialized agency
Name:
Mr. Victor Chub
Position:
Minister, Director General of Uzhydromet
Phone:
+99871 233 61 80, +99871 239 4917, 2331206, +99871 2360232, +99871 2391137
Emails:
uzhymet@meteo.uz, info@tta.uz, ecoenergy@uznature.uz, z.rakhimov@uznature.uz, abdmj@rambler.ru

Energy profile

Uzbekistan (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Villagers in over 1,000 rural communities in Uzbekistan live without electricity, unconnected to the central power grid and with little prospect of being hooked up in future due to high investment costs. Lacking electricity to generate light and heat or pump well water, residents are forced to rely on expensive and polluting alternatives such as coal, kerosene and diesel fuel, or to burn wood gathered from local forests, which has contributed to deforestation and further land degradation. In addition to burdening an already fragile environment, these practices negatively impact the health of the region's impoverished residents.

Renewable energy potential

HydroelectricUzbekistan lies between the two largest rivers of Central Asia, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. The Amu Darya is Uzbekistan’s largest river, formed by the confluence of the Panj and Vakhsh Rivers near the south-eastern tip of Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya’s course is generally parallel to the southern border of the country. The Syr Darya is formed in the Fergana Valley by two rivers flowing east, the Naryn and Qoradaryo.The average annual hydropower generation in Uzbekistan amounts to 6.3 billion kWh. Hydroelectric installed capacity totals 1,815 MW, and hydropower accounts for almost 14% of total generating capacity. Uzbekistan maintains significant hydroelectric generation with about 20 facilities in operation and another 5 large facilities planned. Uzbekistan has a total of 610 MW planned, with a majority of that capacity coming from the Pskem power plant (459 MW). That plant is planned for the Pskem River in the Tashkent Province. Most of small hydropower potential is concentrated in the southern and eastern regions of the Republic.WindUzbekistan is characterized by weak winds. Average annual wind velocities are less than 3 m/s. However, there are small territories with average annual velocities 5 m/s and higher. These territories are the Aral Sea coast, Plato Ustyurt, some areas of steppe zone of Kyzylkums, zone of winds near Bekabad alternately in Eastern and western direction and a number of areas of mountain and foothill valleys-Pskem, Ahangaran, Boysun etc.The wind energy potential of Uzbekistan is fair, with a potential generating capacity of around 100 MW. Although this is small relative to the generating capacity of existing power plants, environmental concerns and needs of remote locations may drive development of this potential. At present there are no operational or planned wind power plants in Uzbekistan.The most promising sites are the Aral Sea region, Karakalpakiya, and the Central region of the country, with wind velocities around 9 m/s. A more in-depth study of the east coast of the Aral Sea would be worth performing.BiomassUzbekistan has been using biomass practices for years in homes and on family farms. The country has used livestock manure in many traditional practices such as aerobic digestion (composting), anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters), and as a direct application as organic fertilizer. Biomass has also been a traditional energy source for the production of biogas. Uzbekistan has a biomass potential of approximately 3,500 MWh.Biogas installations have been tested at the cattle farm, Milk Agro, in the Zangiota village of the Tashket region. The farm has been able to use biogas for its electricity and heating needs. The “Training Centre for Biogas Technologies” was also established to analyze the project’s results.Uzbekistan is the first amongst former Soviet Union countries and fifth in the world in the production of raw cotton. Uzbekistan produces about 15% of the world’s cotton. As a result, the country produces between 7-10 million tons of cotton cellulose waste products. Currently, the population of Uzbekistan uses the waste from cultivating cotton and cereal crops as a fuel in private household equipment. However, processing cotton waste products could be important for commercial renewable energy development in Uzbekistan.SolarUzbekistan has great solar energy potential. Solar experimentation has been going on in the country for decades, but a solar energy market has never been fully established. In 2003 the Technology Transfer Agency of Uzbekistan (TTA) and United Nations Development Program's (UNDP) solar-power initiative started a pilot project for the installation of solar energy units in remote villages. An American company supplied main solar cells for this project. UNDP has focused on Karakalpakstan as it is one of the most underdeveloped regions of Uzbekistan, and tends to get overlooked by development agencies, the government and foreign donors.Solar energy can benefit over 900 remote villages and 4,500 sheep farms in areas where energy and water supply by conventional means is not feasible. The Technology Transfer Agency hopes that development of solar energy will receive more support in the future.The use of solar energy in Uzbekistan currently consists mainly of use for solar hot water heaters. Active scientific researches in the field of solar energy are carried out in Academy of Sciences of Republic Uzbekistan, in particular, in Scientific-Production Association “Physics-Sun.”The climatic conditions of Uzbekistan for solar energy are some of the best among CIS states. However the material for compiling the maps of distribution of solar radiation incident is insufficient because of a small number of points where the measurements of solar radiation are carried out. Solar energy resource potential in Uzbekistan is characterized by the data presented in tables below. They show the monthly and annual incidence of total solar radiation on horizontal surface and direct solar radiation on a surface normal to beams. The data represents three areas: Tashkent, Samarkand and Termez.GeothermalGeothermal resources of Uzbekistan consist of thermal waters with temperatures in the range of 60-120 оC. Despite the good degree of examination of geothermal reservoirs, the use of thermal water is still in the initial stage. The mastering of geothermal resources is foreseen by the national energy program; however, at this time there is no generating capacity in the country. Geothermal reservoirs were discovered due to the test of wells drilled for oil and gas exploration and production in the central part of Turan Plate. Main thermal water areas are:Amu Darya Basin; geothermal gradient 38 оC/km, reservoir depth 12950 m, temperature 122 оC.Surkhan Darya Basin; an aquifer produces 830 l/s of thermal water (65 оC).Taskent Basin; Lower Cretaceous reservoirs (2000-2500 m) contain thermal water, temperature 75-80оC, TDS 1 g/l, total flow rate 500 l/sFergana Valley; aquifers in Neogene sediments produce thermal water, temperature 70-90оC, flow rates ranging from 30 to 500 l/s.Total thermal water resources are estimated about 135 MWt (free flow operation) or 1150 MWt (pumping operation).

Energy framework

The Government's power sector development plans cover physical and non-physical aspects directed to ensureuninterrupted and reliable power supply to all customers in Uzbekistan;security and reliability of the Central Asia Power System;equal access to the transmission system;investment in reconstruction, modernization, and expansion of power generation, transmission, and distribution systems;diversification of the fuel mix for power generation; andimprovement of management, operations, and performance of utilities based on commercial principles.On 30 September 2009, the Law on Electric-Power Industry came into effect, paving the way for private investment in power generation and distribution in the medium- to long-term. Further institutional and regulatory reforms will create an enabling environment for private sector participation.In the short and medium term (2009–2014), plans call for increasing power generation capacity to match the projected growth in demand of 3.1%–5.4% per year. To meet this demand, the government plans to build new and efficient combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and replace some old and obsolete thermal power plants (TPPs), rehabilitate coal-fired power plants, and build small hydropower plants.

Source
Static Source:
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