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Tuvalu

Official Name:
Tuvalu
Region:

Energy profile

Tuvalu (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

About 92% of the total households are connected to the diesel electricity grid.

Renewable energy potential

Hydro powerHydropower resources are not available as there are no rivers.Solar energyThe rainy season lasts from November to April, but rain fall is not continuous. Located at 8 degrees south latitude, good solar radiation of more than 5 kWh/m2/day is expected throughout the year. The solar resource has therefore been proven sufficient to power solar home systems reliably. The resource in central Tuvalu is estimated at about 5.5kWh/m2/day with higher values to the north and lower values to the south.Biomass energyBiomass is limited since most of the land is covered by coconut trees that have more economic value as coconut producers than as fuel. Biomass for energy is hampered by the poor soils that make recovery of the resource slow and by the limited land area that generally can be used more profitably for something other than growing fuel. However, there can be a significant amount of biomass made available through replanting of the senile trees if the coconut industry is revived by conversion to biofuel production.BiofuelsThe potential for biofuel is the largest of any renewable energy resource available.  The coconut oil has sufficient capacity to provide a high percentage of the replacement of diesel fuel used for power generation without much rehabilitation. There is significant potential for biogas production from pig manure.Wave energyThere is a moderate wave energy resource in Tuvalu. Although there is a large Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion resource, there are no commercially available OTEC generators, especially at the small size needed by Tuvalu. Regarding tidal energy resources, the island sits on a highly porous coral shelf which does not allow storing significant amounts of water.Wind energyA feasibility study conducted by the e8 members from Japan in 2006 identified wind as potential renewable energy sources to be explored for electricity generation. According to the study, wind measurements showed sufficient wind power only between the months of November and March, and the lack of good wind synopsis points, due to the low lying atolls, poses an additional challenge. Danish-funded Pacific Islands Energy Policy and Strategic Action Planning (PIEPSAP) project funded a wind measuring programme. Wind measurement studies have been carried out in Funafuti for a period of two years and PIGGAREP is to provide financial support for further feasibility studies and assessment of wind power generation potential on the atolls.

Energy framework

The country announced its National Strategy for Sustainable Development (NSSD) 2005-2015 in 2005. In July 2004, the NSSD chose a development strategy by national consensus, including the areas judged to be the development priorities: good governance; economic growth; job creation; more economic opportunity; better health and education; improved basic infrastructure; social development (youth, housing, gender equality, sports and recreation); natural resources (agriculture, fisheries, tourism, environment); and social stability. Each strategic development priority has a vital role to play to attain the “Vision”: To achieve a healthier, more educated, peaceful and prosperous Tuvalu. The Outer Island Development: Priorities and Strategies 2005-2015 within the NSSD includes provide a better infrastructure including renewable energy technologies.Tuvalu National Energy Policy (TNEP), released  in May 2009, targets a time frame of 15 years and focuses on:Energy Sector Planning, Co-ordination, and ManagementPetroleumTransportElectricityRenewable EnergyEnergy Conservation and EfficiencyEnvironmentThe TNEP aims to promote the development of renewable energy resources such as solar, wind and biofuel to broaden energy sources in Tuvalu. More specifically, proposes reviving the solar energy company that ceased operating because of poor management. In addition, the policy calls for energy efficiency measures in all sectors.The policy does not outline detailed plans on how to achieve the goals, nor is there much reference to the role of the private sector. These should become clear as the Ministry of Public Utilities and Industries starts to develop implementation strategies and work plans.Tuvalu government announced its target to have all its energy generated from renewable sources by 2020. It estimates that it will cost about $20m to generate all its electricity by using renewable.The Tuvalu Sustainable Energy Interventions initiative aims to improve public awareness on energy conservation and energy efficiency in the country. It develops capacity of technicians to maintain solar-diesel hybrid systems and solar PV stand-alone home systems in outer islands. The project also adds value to proposed Italian-funded renewable energy project “Tuvalu Photovoltaic Electricity Network Integration" (TPVENI) and enables resource mobilization to sustain programme.Tuvalu activities identified under the Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Programme (PIGGAREP) will build on 3 key initiatives: (1) The Tuvalu Grid-connected PV training and installation project, (2) The Alofa Tuvalu's Amatuku Project to implement biogas digesters, a small coconut biodiesel plant, a small windmill and PV systems, and (3) Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy and IUCN to install a 40 kW PV system, to feed into the existing diesel grid system, and solar street lights in one of the outer islands - Vaitupu island (Tuvalu Photovoltaic Electricity Network Integration Project - TPVENIP). The project will contribute to reducing the country’s dependence on diesel generation and reduce operational costs to TEC. In addition, it will bring about a savings of about 109 tonnes of CO2 per annum (assuming 30% efficiency). The system was planned to be commissioned in November 2010.The European Community, through the EDF-10 program, is proposing a EUR4.4m project for the Water and Energy sector. One of the three objectives is to increase the use of renewable energy as a proportion of national energy consumption.Tuvalu is part of the GEF Pacific Alliance for Sustainability (GPAS) programme under the “Low Carbon Energy Islands- Accelerating the Use of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technologies” initiative.A Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Unit (REEEU) will be established within TEC with a support of New Zealand. New Zealand also assists with the development of a Master Energy Plan that will likely identify subsequent renewable energy investments and systematic energy sector and investment planning coordinated with the Tuvalu Infrastructure Plan.  The Tuvalu Initial National Communication, released in 1999, documents some of the early identified needs and vulnerabilities of the country. It set the stage for development of Tuvalu’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). Released in 2007, the NAPA provides detailed information about the current and possible future impacts of climate change on this island nation. The need to adapt to the impacts of climate change is also highlighted in the NSSD 2005-2015.

Source
Static Source:
  • Guidelines for Climate Proofing Investment in Agriculture, Rural Development and Food Security

    Type: 
    Publication
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    This report aims to present a step-by-step methodological approach to assist project teams to assess and incorporate climate change adaptation measures into agriculture, rural development and food security investment projects. The report focuses mainly on irrigation infrastructure projects and agriculture production projects.

  • Capacity Building hub for Sustainable Energy

    Type: 
    Publication
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    The capacity building hub collaborates with global stakeholders and institutions across the energy value chain, and leverages their mutual strengths to foster attainment of the ambitious goals. The hub undertakes a demand-driven approach to catalyze change. It is a special-purpose vehicle that facilitates - awareness generation/sensitization, knowledge assimilation and dissemination, design and delivery of programmes of change, and identification of research gaps.

  • Lighting a Billion Lives

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Lighting a Billion Lives is a global initiative to facilitate clean energy access and the delivery of last mile energy services for basic and productive use. The initiative enables energy poor communities to transition from traditional and inefficient energy sources to modern, more efficient and sustainable energy solutions. The initiative accelerates market development for clean energy technologies through knowledge sharing, capacity building and market seeding.

  • GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment)

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    Publication
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    GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) is a rating tool that helps people assesses the performance of their building against certain nationally acceptable benchmarks. It evaluates the environmental performance of a building holistically over its entire life cycle, thereby providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a ‘green building’. The rating system, based on accepted energy and environmental principles, seeks to strike a balance between the established practices and emerging concepts, both national and international.

  • Specialized Library on Climate Change

    Type: 
    Publication
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    The Specialized Library on Climate Change houses wide array of resources on climate change related issues, both in print and electronic form. The website provides information about all the resources and services offered by the library. The library catalogue of print and electronic resources and database of literature abstracts can be accessed on-line. Current awareness services like listing of new arrivals and compilation of latest news and events are also provided on-line.

  • ENVIS Centre on Renewable Energy and Environment

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    The major objectives of the ENVIS Centre are collection and dissemination of information in order to support and promote research, development and innovation among researcher, policy makers, academics and other stakeholders. The Centre is actively engaged in data gaps identification and bridging, resource generation and data collection, capacity-building and information dissemination activities.

  • Good Practice Study on GHG-Inventories for the Waste Sector in Non-Annex l Countries

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    Publication
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    The study aims to provide comprehensive guidance to policy makers and practitioners in developing countries [Non-Annex I countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)] for the preparation of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories for the waste sector. Though GHG emissions from the waste sector are still comparatively low compared to other sectors, they are continuously rising in developing countries due to changing production and consumption patterns. Experience shows that emissions from this sector can be reduced significantly at relatively low costs.

  • Broschüre “Cool bleiben: Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Wachstum, Kühlung und Klimawandel“

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    1. Steigender Energiebedarf und ein Recht auf Kühlung? Darf es ihn geben, den Anspruch auf eine Klimaanlage und einen Kühlschrank – ähnlich wie das Recht auf eine Heizung? 2. Kühle Kette für eine gesunde Versorgung Nach Schätzungen der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) verderben durchschnittlich 30 Prozent, in tropischen Ländern sogar 50 Prozent der Lebensmittel mangels angemessener Lagerung. 3. Grüne Technik und Wertschöpfung Das Zauberwort heißt Ressourceneffizienz. Der Schlüssel in der Kältetechnik dafür sind natürliche Gase. 4.

  • Buenas Practicas de refrigeración

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    This manual should provide professional guidance on how to service and maintain refrigeration systems operating with new technology, e.g. ozone- and climate-friendly alternative refrigerants to CFCs and HCFCs. It addresses essential know-how on containment of HFC refrigerants which have a high global warming potential (GWP) and provides information on the safe use of environmental-friendly natural refrigerants, such as CO2, ammonia or hydrocarbons.

  • Cool und nachhaltig: Kühlung in der internationalen Zusammenarbeit

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Kühlschrank und Klimaanlage – sie stehen ganz oben auf der Wunschliste von Menschen in heißen Ländern. Bis zum Jahr 2030 rechnet die Internationale Energieagentur (IEA) mit einem viermal höheren Energiebedarf für Klimatisierung in den Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern im Vergleich zu heute. Auch werden oft chemisch hergestellte Gase als Kühlmittel eingesetzt. Sie schädigen die Ozonschicht und treiben den Klimawandel voran. Grüne Technologien nutzen hingegen natürliche Gase zur Kälteerzeugung, sind energieeffizienter und können mit Sonnen- oder Windkraft betrieben werden.