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Trinidad and Tobago

Official Name:
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Region:

Energy profile

Trinidad and Tobago (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Household electrification in the country is over 97%. Two 33kV submarine cables link the islands' electricity networks.

Renewable energy potential

Development and use of renewable energy sources are still in their embryonic stages in Trinidad and Tobago. Although, it has been acknowledged that some of the more commercial areas of renewable energy, which are applicable to the Caribbean region in general and to Trinidad and Tobago in particular, are solar energy – thermal and photovoltaic, wind, wave, and to a lesser extent, biomass.Solar energyWith an average global horizontal irradiance of 5.5-6.0 kWh/m2/day, Trinidad and Tobago are well suited for application of solar technologies, both thermal and photovoltaic. Possible applications include solar crop drying and use in water heating, as well as for electricity generation.Wind energyGovernment officials have recently stated the nation's interest in exploiting the potential wind resource of the island. Mean annual wind speeds over the country are not as high as some of the country's Caribbean neighbours, but are still serviceable.HydropowerNo study has been conducted as to the traditional hydro-electric potential of the country, although wave power has been proposed as a source of energy for the islands.Biomass energyThe Government is currently investigating the use of biomass energy as a potential source of electricity, however, applications are said to be limited due to the scarceness of agricultural land and water in the country.Geothermal energyWhilst the country's oil industry is indirectly involved with geothermal energy through its assistance to the Kittitian/Nevisean geothermal market, development of potential geothermal sources in the country has been ruled out by the Government.

Energy framework

The energy policies of T&T focus on seven areas as shown in the website of the Ministry of Energy and Energy Affairs:Local content: promotion of local content and local participation,Renewable energy: development and utilization of renewable energy resources, including solar photovoltaic and thermal energy, wind energy, wave energy and bio-fuels (biomass, biogas, biodiesel  and bio-ethanol),Infrastructural development: development of major energy-based infrastructure nergy- nol), –  ew. 1,344 MW); facilities,electricity: conversion from gas turbine and steam  plants to combined cycle generation of electricity,regional and international initiatives: regional and international relations and cooperation initiatives regarding energy security, pricing, purchasing and transportation,fiscal regime: fiscal regime to promote energy-based investment,LNG: pursuit of new LNG opportunities targeted at the domestic market.With the election of a new government in May 2010, the new authorities have indicated the need to move forward in the reform for a sustainable and cleaner energy matrix that will stimulate the development of RE (such as wind, waste to energy, solar water heaters and photovoltaic (PV) systems), EE and efficient use of fossil fuels as the core elements to maintain long-term sustainability, and as a consequence of the latter, contribute to reducing Green House Gas emissions (GHG).A climate change policy has been drafted and the Ministry of Energy and Energy Affairs (MEEA) is currently conducting public consultations to inform the drafting of an Energy Policy for the country. Elements of the draft energy policy include strategies for carbon reduction and strategies for introducing renewable energy. Plans for implementing mitigation and adaptation strategies to deal with the effects of climate change have been integrated into national planning; recognizing the fact that climate change affects all sectors of the economy and, if not addressed, can retard steps towards future development.In the report ‘‘A New Policy for Energy, 2011–2015’’ energy efficiency, conservation and management initiatives are given central roles within renewable energy, NG utilization and pricing, and carbon reduction strategies. In the preface of a report of the Energy Research and Planning Division for the renewable energy policy for T&T, it is stated that ‘‘Local energy demand for this finite resource [NG] is on the increase, making conservation paramount. This could be reasonably addressed by utilization of RE resources, increasing EE, decreasing energy demand and the use of alternative fuels in the transportation sector.’’ The report concludes with the statement ‘‘Noteworthy however, is that practical solutions for improving energy efficiency are essential to complement renewable energy programmes’’. 

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  • Covenant of Mayors: A path towards energy efficiency and climate protection in municipalities

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    The demand for energy across the globe continues to grow. Cities account for approximately two thirds of energy consumed worldwide and 70 % of the greenhouse gas emissions related to people. Energy prices have experienced nothing but growth for years now. Even in places where prices for electricity and heating appear low from a customer standpoint, subsidies actually end up footing the bill in many cases, which are in turn covered by national budgets that are funded by tax payers.

  • Low-carbon, cost-efficient, cosy: Efficient lighting for public buildings

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    In public buildings lighting accounts for about 40% of the electricity costs. If you multiply this figure by the number of kindergartens, schools and universities, town halls, local government buildings and government departments, libraries, swimming pools and hospitals, then the total is enormous. Lighting in public buildings is currently consuming far more energy than necessary, with all the negative side-effects such as high running costs, electricity bottlenecks and damage to the climate. That can easily be changed.

  • Broschüre “Cool bleiben: Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Wachstum, Kühlung und Klimawandel“

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    1. Steigender Energiebedarf und ein Recht auf Kühlung? Darf es ihn geben, den Anspruch auf eine Klimaanlage und einen Kühlschrank – ähnlich wie das Recht auf eine Heizung? 2. Kühle Kette für eine gesunde Versorgung Nach Schätzungen der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) verderben durchschnittlich 30 Prozent, in tropischen Ländern sogar 50 Prozent der Lebensmittel mangels angemessener Lagerung. 3. Grüne Technik und Wertschöpfung Das Zauberwort heißt Ressourceneffizienz. Der Schlüssel in der Kältetechnik dafür sind natürliche Gase. 4.

  • Cool und nachhaltig: Kühlung in der internationalen Zusammenarbeit

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    Kühlschrank und Klimaanlage – sie stehen ganz oben auf der Wunschliste von Menschen in heißen Ländern. Bis zum Jahr 2030 rechnet die Internationale Energieagentur (IEA) mit einem viermal höheren Energiebedarf für Klimatisierung in den Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern im Vergleich zu heute. Auch werden oft chemisch hergestellte Gase als Kühlmittel eingesetzt. Sie schädigen die Ozonschicht und treiben den Klimawandel voran. Grüne Technologien nutzen hingegen natürliche Gase zur Kälteerzeugung, sind energieeffizienter und können mit Sonnen- oder Windkraft betrieben werden.

  • Cool and sustainable: Refrigeration and international cooperation

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    Refrigerators and air conditioning units feature high on the wish lists of people in hot countries. The International Energy Agency (IEA) calculates that by the year 2030 the energy consumption for air conditioning in developing countries and emerging nations will be four times what it is today. It is often the case that the gases used as refrigerants are produced chemically. They are damaging to the ozone layer and accelerate climate change. By contrast green technologies use natural gases in the cooling process, are more energy efficient and can be driven by sun or wind power.

  • Factsheet: Green Cooling Initiative

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    Due to the rising temperatures, population, urbanization and economic growth, the demand of cooling and air conditioning is steadily increasing. The “Green Cooling Network” was established in order to promote a dialogue between stakeholders from industries, policy, research and non-governmental organizations. The project aims to implement the Cancun decisions to build efficient processes and structures that serve to accelerate the technology transfer for mitigation and adaptation in developing countries.

  • Factsheet: Proklima - Protection of the ozone layer, Technology transfer with cooperation with private industry

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    Initiated by the detection of the so called “ozone hole” over the Antarctic, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer came into force in 1987. The Protocol regulates the phase-out of production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in refrigeration and air conditioning. This phase-out has led to the introduction of new, environmental-friendly technologies in industrialized countries.

  • GIZ-programme towards ozone layer and climate protection

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    Proklima is a programme of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. It started in 1995 to support the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and also other international conventions and initiatives in the field of ozone layer and climate protection (e.g. Kyoto Protocol) in developing countries.

  • Developing 2°C compatible investment criteria

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    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2°C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations.