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Turkey

Official Name:
Republic of Turkey
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Research and academic institution
Name:
Ms. Tugba Dogan Guzel
Position:
Expert Researcher
Phone:
+90 262 677 29 75
Emails:
tugba.dogan@tubitak.gov.tr

Energy profile

Turkey (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

About 99.9% of the Turkish population have access to electricity.The Turkish transmission network consists of 14,453 km of 400 kV lines, 86 km of 220 kV lines, 31,716 km of 154 kV lines, and 508 km of 66 kV lines. In addition, there are 200 km of 154 kV cables, and 22.8 km of 380 kV cables. 

Renewable energy potential

Turkey’s renewable energy sources are plentiful and extensive, and represent the second-largest domestic energy source after coal. Primary renewable energy resources in Turkey are: hydro, biomass, wind, biogas, geothermal and solar.Geothermal energyTurkey ranks 7th worldwide in geothermal resources which yield a potential of 2,000 MWe (electricity) and 31,500 MWt (thermal). However, the installed capacity is only 20 MWe and 1,077 MWt. A 52 MWe plant is currently under construction. The majority of geothermal resources in the country are found in Menderes Massif, in Western Anatolia.Wind energyTurkey has one of the highest potential for wind energy in Europe and there exists an economical potential of 10,000 MW. As of 2007, the installed capacity has increased to 200 MW, with a further 600 MW in construction. The Turkish Wind Energy Potential Atlas was developed in 2007. An estimated 5,000 MW of new wind capacity can be installed where the annual wind speed is higher than 8.5 m/s, with a further 48,000 MW where the annual wind speed is higher than 7.0 m/s.Solar energyTurkey lies in a sunny belt between 36º and 42ºN latitudes. The yearly average solar radiation is 3.6  kWh/m2/day, and the total yearly radiation period is approximately 2640 h, which is sufficient to provide adequate energy for solar thermal applications. Technical solar potential stands at 76 Mtoe. Photovoltaic applications in the country currently stand at around 1000 kW, and are mainly installed in areas where electricity transmission is not economically feasible.  In spite of this high potential, solar energy is not now widely used, except for flat-plate solar collectors. In 2007, solar water heating produced roughly 400 ktoe in the country.Hydro powerThere are 436 sites available for hydroelectric plant construction, distributed on 26 main river zones.  The total gross potential and total energy production of these sites are nearly 50 GW and 112 TWh/yr, respectively, and about 30% of the total gross potential may be economically exploitable. Installed capacity of hydroelectric plants in Turkey stood at 13,393 MW at the end of 2007. It is projected that hydroelectric power plant capacity will rise to 35,000 MW by the year 2020. Unused potential consists of many small hydro projects, which have traditionally been one of the most attractive options for private investors in Turkey.Biomass energyConsidering the natural resources and extent of agro-economic infrastructure, Turkey also has a significant potential in biomass. As of 2003, 15 million tons of forest residues and 5.4 million tons of plant and animal wastes are used for the production of energy. However, it is estimated that around 50-60 million tons of animal wastes and 50-100 million tons of agro-industry wastes can be used for production of energy. Among the renewable energy sources, biomass is important because its share of total energy consumption is still high in Turkey. Since 1980, the contribution of the biomass resources in the total energy consumption dropped from 20% to 5% in 2008. Biogas production potential has been estimated at some 2 Mtoe. Biodiesel production capacity is 1.5 Mt and bioethanol production capacity is about 3 Mt per year. High targets have been set for 2015 in terms of biofuel production; 1,250,000 tonnes of biodiesel, and 735,000 tonnes of bioethanol   

Energy framework

Whilst Turkey does not have a specific national energy strategy document, objectives including securing energy supply, diversification of the energy mix (including renewable energy development), and the opening of the electricity market to all consumers by 2015, are contained within the Institutional Strategic Plan 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.The Renewable Electricity Law was adopted in 2005, as the transposition of EU Directive 2001/77/EC. The law which enables government to purchase a maximum of 20% of electricity from renewable energy sources by was fully operational by 2007.Biodiesel and bioethanol are being developed under the Petrol Markets and Tobacco Markets Laws respectively.An Amending Law to the Renewable Energy Law was prepared in 2008, in order to provide further incentives to the renewable energy sector. According to the amending law, different minimum purchase prices varying between 5 Euro Cent/kWh to 18Euro Cent/kWh are stipulated for electricity produced from different types of renewable energy resources. The purchase obligations are provided to be extended to facilities established prior to 1 January 2016. The Energy Efficiency Law (EEL) of Turkey was developed as a result of Turkey's tasks of complying with the EU directives. The law, expected to achieve 25–30% savings in total energy consumption, came into force on May 2, 2007 through the law number 5627.  The law exploits the efficient use of energy and covers administrative structuring, energy auditing, financial instruments and incentives, awareness raising and the establishment of an Energy Service Company (ESCO) market for energy efficiency (EE) services.The Law No. 5686 on the Law on Geothermal resources and natural mineral waters (June 03, 2007) to set forth the rules and principles for exploring, producing and protecting geothermal and natural mineral water resources this law is enforced.The Law No. 5346 on the Use of Renewable Energy Resources for Electricity Production Purposes (May 18, 2005) was created to ensure the widespread use of renewable energy sources, increase resource diversification, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and protect the environment. Within the scope of this law were conditions for the creation of a feed-in tariff system, combined with guaranteed purchase agreements for electricity generated from renewable energy sources, in addition to a guarantee-of-origin certificate system. Differentiation of tariff structure for different renewable energy sources was introduced in 2008 with the Amending Law. The tariff is valid for the first ten years of plants set up before 31 December 2011. Further amendments to the Law were made in 2011, further diversifying feed-in tariff structure, whilst limiting total production capacity of licensed solar energy companies to 600 MW by December 2013. Additional incentives will be offered to companies that utilise local manufacturing in the production of renewable energy infrastructure. 

Source
Static Source:
  • Project Outputs Database (Website)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This web-based database provides detailed project output documents from Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) projects. The database contains output documents from specific types of energy access, energy efficiency, and renewable energy programmes. These documents can be searched based for certain technologies or particular countries. Output documents are in English, Spanish, Chinese, French, and Portuguese. REEEP projects aim to improve access to clean and reliable energy in developing countries.

  • Policy and Regulatory Overviews (Website)

    Type: 
    Publication

    reegle's policy and regulatory overviews provide country highlights for a variety of policies and regulations relating to energy, energy efficiency, fuels, standards and labeling, incentives such as feed-in tariffs for renewables, national targets, and other national strategies for low-carbon development.

  • Country Energy Profiles (Website)

    Type: 
    Publication

    This reegle website provides comprehensive energy profiles for all countries with information from reliable sources such as UN or the World Bank. Profile information includes national policies on energy-related issues, visualized statistics, renewable energy potentials maps, national projects programmes, and key stakeholders.

  • Photovoltaic Geographical Information System

    Type: 
    Publication
    Sectors:

    This tool provides a geographical inventory of solar energy resources and an assessment of the electricity generation from photovoltaic systems in Europe, Africa, and southwest Asia. The tools allows for analysis of the technical, environmental, and socio-economic factors of solar electricity generation. Users may access maps and posters generated using the tool, as well as technical publications and papers.

  • Greening Household Behaviour: The Role of Public Policy

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This report evaluated the role of public policy in encouraging conservation in a residential setting. It interprets the results of an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) survey sent to over 10,000 households within the OECD area on home water use, energy use, personal transport choices, organic food consumption, and waste generation and recycling. Analysis of the responses offers insight into the market, demographic, and policy factors that actually influence people’s environmental behaviour and consumption patterns.

  • Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party

    Type: 
    Publication
    Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party
    Publication date:

    This summary document provides an overview of energy efficiency policies and planning across all sectors in International Energy Agency (IEA) member countries. It contains an overview of changes in policy context by country, as well as updated data on energy consumption and intensity. The majority is devoted to summarizing significant policy developments in the following sectors: buildings; transport, lighting, and appliances; public sector; and industry and energy management.

  • Renewable Energy Sector in the European Union: Its Employment and Export Potential

    Type: 
    Publication
    Renewable Energy Sector in the European Union: Its Employment and Export Potential
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This report was prepared for the European Commission (EC) to assess the state of renewable energy developments within the European Union (EU). The report contains an overview of the deployment of EU renewable energy policies and projects as well as an assessment of the socio-economic impacts of their deployment such as employment, manufacturing activity, and exports. Additionally, it reviews the renewable energy developments in EU "candidate countries" (as of 2002).

  • Investing in a Sustainable Future: Multilateral Development Banks' Investment in Energy Policy

    Type: 
    Publication
    Investing in a Sustainable Future: Multilateral Development Banks' Investment in Energy Policy
    Publication date:

    This report examines those policies, regulations, and institutional capacities in the electricity sector that will direct both public and private investment towards sustainable energy options. It discusses how Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) are in a position to work with stakeholders in developing countries, including other donors, to pursue low carbon growth options that also support poverty alleviation.

  • Renewable Energy Sector in the European Union: Its Employment and Export Potential

    Type: 
    Publication
    Renewable Energy Sector in the European Union: Its Employment and Export Potential
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This report was prepared for the European Commission to assess the state of renewable energy developments within the European Union (EU). The report contains an overview of the deployment of EU renewable energy policies and projects as well as an assessment of the socio-economic impacts of their deployment such as employment, manufacturing activity, and exports. Additionally, it reviews the renewable energy developments in EU candidate countries.

  • Turkey's Renewable Energy Project: Implementation Status and Results Report

    Type: 
    Publication
    Turkey's Renewable Energy Project: Implementation Status and Results Report
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    One objective of Turkey's renewable energy policy is to increase privately owned and operated distributed power generation from renewable sources, without the need for government guarantees, within the market-based framework of the new Turkish Electricity Market Law. The report includes an overview of the policies and financial incentives implemented, as well as lessons learned.