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Turkey

Official Name:
Republic of Turkey
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Research and academic institution
Name:
Ms. Tugba Dogan Guzel
Position:
Expert Researcher
Phone:
+90 262 677 29 75
Emails:
tugba.dogan@tubitak.gov.tr

Energy profile

Turkey (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

About 99.9% of the Turkish population have access to electricity.The Turkish transmission network consists of 14,453 km of 400 kV lines, 86 km of 220 kV lines, 31,716 km of 154 kV lines, and 508 km of 66 kV lines. In addition, there are 200 km of 154 kV cables, and 22.8 km of 380 kV cables. 

Renewable energy potential

Turkey’s renewable energy sources are plentiful and extensive, and represent the second-largest domestic energy source after coal. Primary renewable energy resources in Turkey are: hydro, biomass, wind, biogas, geothermal and solar.Geothermal energyTurkey ranks 7th worldwide in geothermal resources which yield a potential of 2,000 MWe (electricity) and 31,500 MWt (thermal). However, the installed capacity is only 20 MWe and 1,077 MWt. A 52 MWe plant is currently under construction. The majority of geothermal resources in the country are found in Menderes Massif, in Western Anatolia.Wind energyTurkey has one of the highest potential for wind energy in Europe and there exists an economical potential of 10,000 MW. As of 2007, the installed capacity has increased to 200 MW, with a further 600 MW in construction. The Turkish Wind Energy Potential Atlas was developed in 2007. An estimated 5,000 MW of new wind capacity can be installed where the annual wind speed is higher than 8.5 m/s, with a further 48,000 MW where the annual wind speed is higher than 7.0 m/s.Solar energyTurkey lies in a sunny belt between 36º and 42ºN latitudes. The yearly average solar radiation is 3.6  kWh/m2/day, and the total yearly radiation period is approximately 2640 h, which is sufficient to provide adequate energy for solar thermal applications. Technical solar potential stands at 76 Mtoe. Photovoltaic applications in the country currently stand at around 1000 kW, and are mainly installed in areas where electricity transmission is not economically feasible.  In spite of this high potential, solar energy is not now widely used, except for flat-plate solar collectors. In 2007, solar water heating produced roughly 400 ktoe in the country.Hydro powerThere are 436 sites available for hydroelectric plant construction, distributed on 26 main river zones.  The total gross potential and total energy production of these sites are nearly 50 GW and 112 TWh/yr, respectively, and about 30% of the total gross potential may be economically exploitable. Installed capacity of hydroelectric plants in Turkey stood at 13,393 MW at the end of 2007. It is projected that hydroelectric power plant capacity will rise to 35,000 MW by the year 2020. Unused potential consists of many small hydro projects, which have traditionally been one of the most attractive options for private investors in Turkey.Biomass energyConsidering the natural resources and extent of agro-economic infrastructure, Turkey also has a significant potential in biomass. As of 2003, 15 million tons of forest residues and 5.4 million tons of plant and animal wastes are used for the production of energy. However, it is estimated that around 50-60 million tons of animal wastes and 50-100 million tons of agro-industry wastes can be used for production of energy. Among the renewable energy sources, biomass is important because its share of total energy consumption is still high in Turkey. Since 1980, the contribution of the biomass resources in the total energy consumption dropped from 20% to 5% in 2008. Biogas production potential has been estimated at some 2 Mtoe. Biodiesel production capacity is 1.5 Mt and bioethanol production capacity is about 3 Mt per year. High targets have been set for 2015 in terms of biofuel production; 1,250,000 tonnes of biodiesel, and 735,000 tonnes of bioethanol   

Energy framework

Whilst Turkey does not have a specific national energy strategy document, objectives including securing energy supply, diversification of the energy mix (including renewable energy development), and the opening of the electricity market to all consumers by 2015, are contained within the Institutional Strategic Plan 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.The Renewable Electricity Law was adopted in 2005, as the transposition of EU Directive 2001/77/EC. The law which enables government to purchase a maximum of 20% of electricity from renewable energy sources by was fully operational by 2007.Biodiesel and bioethanol are being developed under the Petrol Markets and Tobacco Markets Laws respectively.An Amending Law to the Renewable Energy Law was prepared in 2008, in order to provide further incentives to the renewable energy sector. According to the amending law, different minimum purchase prices varying between 5 Euro Cent/kWh to 18Euro Cent/kWh are stipulated for electricity produced from different types of renewable energy resources. The purchase obligations are provided to be extended to facilities established prior to 1 January 2016. The Energy Efficiency Law (EEL) of Turkey was developed as a result of Turkey's tasks of complying with the EU directives. The law, expected to achieve 25–30% savings in total energy consumption, came into force on May 2, 2007 through the law number 5627.  The law exploits the efficient use of energy and covers administrative structuring, energy auditing, financial instruments and incentives, awareness raising and the establishment of an Energy Service Company (ESCO) market for energy efficiency (EE) services.The Law No. 5686 on the Law on Geothermal resources and natural mineral waters (June 03, 2007) to set forth the rules and principles for exploring, producing and protecting geothermal and natural mineral water resources this law is enforced.The Law No. 5346 on the Use of Renewable Energy Resources for Electricity Production Purposes (May 18, 2005) was created to ensure the widespread use of renewable energy sources, increase resource diversification, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and protect the environment. Within the scope of this law were conditions for the creation of a feed-in tariff system, combined with guaranteed purchase agreements for electricity generated from renewable energy sources, in addition to a guarantee-of-origin certificate system. Differentiation of tariff structure for different renewable energy sources was introduced in 2008 with the Amending Law. The tariff is valid for the first ten years of plants set up before 31 December 2011. Further amendments to the Law were made in 2011, further diversifying feed-in tariff structure, whilst limiting total production capacity of licensed solar energy companies to 600 MW by December 2013. Additional incentives will be offered to companies that utilise local manufacturing in the production of renewable energy infrastructure. 

Source
Static Source:
  • Center for Clean Air Policy

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP) is a not for profit, non governmental and research and academic organization established in 1985 with the mission to significantly advance cost-effective and pragmatic air quality and climate policy through analysis, dialogue and education to reach a broad range of policy-makers and stakeholders worldwide. CCAP helps policy-makers around the world develop, promote and implement innovative, market-based solutions to major climate, air quality and energy problems that balance both environmental and economic interests. 

  • Envidatec GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Envidatec GmbH is a private sector organization established in 2001 with the mission to bring about an energy efficient future. The main activities are in the fields of energy efficiency, energy audits, energy monitoring and analytics. Envidatec serves the whole spectrum to bring about a change, right from policy makers to the factory workers.

  • FutureWater

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    FutureWater is a private sector organization established in 2002 with the mission to work throughout the world to combine scientific research with practical solutions for water management. FutureWater works on topics such as water for food, irrigation, water excess, water shortage, climate change, and river basin management.

  • Revelle Group

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Belgium
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Revelle Group is a private sector organization established in 2013 with the mission to  enable transition to a more sustainable, reliable and affordable energy future through capacity building and institutional building. Revelle Group facilitates the process of reform, change and sector development through projects financed by international donors and development banks. Revelle Group  helps public entities to develop and implement strategies, legal, institutional and financial frameworks.

  • Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Switzerland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte is an establishment of reflection, research and practice of industrial ecology. The Institute has an engineering division and an expertise cluster, which enables the Institute to identify new technologies linked to industrial ecology and to advise through a specific methodology adapted to local contexts. The project managers work on the practical execution of mandates and on the implementation of the industrial ecology with a particular attention to Switzerland and developing countries.

  • CLEAN AIR INITIATIVE FOR ASIA (CAI-ASIA) CENTER, INC.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Philippines
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Clean Air Asia works towards an "Asia without air pollution.". It provides leadership and technical knowledge to reduce air pollution and GHGs through its programs; air quality and climate change, and sustainable transport. It promotes climate and clean air technologies such as electric mobility, fuel efficient vehicles, walking and cycling, clean technologies for power generation, cooking and heating in developing Asia. It is an NGO registered in 2007 based in Manila and officies in Beijing and Delhi. It is a UNFCCC observer and a UN Type II partnership. 

  • Marstel-Day, LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Marstel-Day is an environmental consultancy firm established in 2002 to provide expertise to public and private-sector organizations in the interrelated areas of climate, habitat, open space, water, resilient infrastructure/public-private partnerships and investment strategies, energy, land-use and other natural resource conservation issues. 

  • ERSNT & YOUNG RDC SARL (EY)

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Congo - Kinshasa
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    As a one firm EY RDC has support of a large number of experts within its network. For example, an integrated Climate Change & Sustainability Service line (CCaSS) within EY help organisations meet the many challenges arising from numerous strategic environmental issues and the fast growing, international environ- mental regulatory framework. Thanks to our global presence and knowledge-sharing environment and the resources that it offers, we are able to reach out to more than 700 professionals, all dedicated topic experts in sustainability over 40 countries.