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Turkey

Official Name:
Republic of Turkey
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Research and academic institution
Name:
Ms. Tugba Dogan Guzel
Position:
Expert Researcher
Phone:
+90 262 677 29 75
Emails:
tugba.dogan@tubitak.gov.tr

Energy profile

Turkey (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

About 99.9% of the Turkish population have access to electricity.The Turkish transmission network consists of 14,453 km of 400 kV lines, 86 km of 220 kV lines, 31,716 km of 154 kV lines, and 508 km of 66 kV lines. In addition, there are 200 km of 154 kV cables, and 22.8 km of 380 kV cables. 

Renewable energy potential

Turkey’s renewable energy sources are plentiful and extensive, and represent the second-largest domestic energy source after coal. Primary renewable energy resources in Turkey are: hydro, biomass, wind, biogas, geothermal and solar.Geothermal energyTurkey ranks 7th worldwide in geothermal resources which yield a potential of 2,000 MWe (electricity) and 31,500 MWt (thermal). However, the installed capacity is only 20 MWe and 1,077 MWt. A 52 MWe plant is currently under construction. The majority of geothermal resources in the country are found in Menderes Massif, in Western Anatolia.Wind energyTurkey has one of the highest potential for wind energy in Europe and there exists an economical potential of 10,000 MW. As of 2007, the installed capacity has increased to 200 MW, with a further 600 MW in construction. The Turkish Wind Energy Potential Atlas was developed in 2007. An estimated 5,000 MW of new wind capacity can be installed where the annual wind speed is higher than 8.5 m/s, with a further 48,000 MW where the annual wind speed is higher than 7.0 m/s.Solar energyTurkey lies in a sunny belt between 36º and 42ºN latitudes. The yearly average solar radiation is 3.6  kWh/m2/day, and the total yearly radiation period is approximately 2640 h, which is sufficient to provide adequate energy for solar thermal applications. Technical solar potential stands at 76 Mtoe. Photovoltaic applications in the country currently stand at around 1000 kW, and are mainly installed in areas where electricity transmission is not economically feasible.  In spite of this high potential, solar energy is not now widely used, except for flat-plate solar collectors. In 2007, solar water heating produced roughly 400 ktoe in the country.Hydro powerThere are 436 sites available for hydroelectric plant construction, distributed on 26 main river zones.  The total gross potential and total energy production of these sites are nearly 50 GW and 112 TWh/yr, respectively, and about 30% of the total gross potential may be economically exploitable. Installed capacity of hydroelectric plants in Turkey stood at 13,393 MW at the end of 2007. It is projected that hydroelectric power plant capacity will rise to 35,000 MW by the year 2020. Unused potential consists of many small hydro projects, which have traditionally been one of the most attractive options for private investors in Turkey.Biomass energyConsidering the natural resources and extent of agro-economic infrastructure, Turkey also has a significant potential in biomass. As of 2003, 15 million tons of forest residues and 5.4 million tons of plant and animal wastes are used for the production of energy. However, it is estimated that around 50-60 million tons of animal wastes and 50-100 million tons of agro-industry wastes can be used for production of energy. Among the renewable energy sources, biomass is important because its share of total energy consumption is still high in Turkey. Since 1980, the contribution of the biomass resources in the total energy consumption dropped from 20% to 5% in 2008. Biogas production potential has been estimated at some 2 Mtoe. Biodiesel production capacity is 1.5 Mt and bioethanol production capacity is about 3 Mt per year. High targets have been set for 2015 in terms of biofuel production; 1,250,000 tonnes of biodiesel, and 735,000 tonnes of bioethanol   

Energy framework

Whilst Turkey does not have a specific national energy strategy document, objectives including securing energy supply, diversification of the energy mix (including renewable energy development), and the opening of the electricity market to all consumers by 2015, are contained within the Institutional Strategic Plan 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.The Renewable Electricity Law was adopted in 2005, as the transposition of EU Directive 2001/77/EC. The law which enables government to purchase a maximum of 20% of electricity from renewable energy sources by was fully operational by 2007.Biodiesel and bioethanol are being developed under the Petrol Markets and Tobacco Markets Laws respectively.An Amending Law to the Renewable Energy Law was prepared in 2008, in order to provide further incentives to the renewable energy sector. According to the amending law, different minimum purchase prices varying between 5 Euro Cent/kWh to 18Euro Cent/kWh are stipulated for electricity produced from different types of renewable energy resources. The purchase obligations are provided to be extended to facilities established prior to 1 January 2016. The Energy Efficiency Law (EEL) of Turkey was developed as a result of Turkey's tasks of complying with the EU directives. The law, expected to achieve 25–30% savings in total energy consumption, came into force on May 2, 2007 through the law number 5627.  The law exploits the efficient use of energy and covers administrative structuring, energy auditing, financial instruments and incentives, awareness raising and the establishment of an Energy Service Company (ESCO) market for energy efficiency (EE) services.The Law No. 5686 on the Law on Geothermal resources and natural mineral waters (June 03, 2007) to set forth the rules and principles for exploring, producing and protecting geothermal and natural mineral water resources this law is enforced.The Law No. 5346 on the Use of Renewable Energy Resources for Electricity Production Purposes (May 18, 2005) was created to ensure the widespread use of renewable energy sources, increase resource diversification, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and protect the environment. Within the scope of this law were conditions for the creation of a feed-in tariff system, combined with guaranteed purchase agreements for electricity generated from renewable energy sources, in addition to a guarantee-of-origin certificate system. Differentiation of tariff structure for different renewable energy sources was introduced in 2008 with the Amending Law. The tariff is valid for the first ten years of plants set up before 31 December 2011. Further amendments to the Law were made in 2011, further diversifying feed-in tariff structure, whilst limiting total production capacity of licensed solar energy companies to 600 MW by December 2013. Additional incentives will be offered to companies that utilise local manufacturing in the production of renewable energy infrastructure. 

Source
Static Source:
  • Abrafo Negajoule Inc

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Abrafo Negajoule provides professional advice to private and public organizations aiming and becoming more profitable and responsible by reducing their energy and resources consumption. Their main activities are consulting services (design and implementation) of sustainable energy projects, support services for the development of energy and resource efficiency and technical training. They have worked in 11 countries. They are a consulting company specialized in the fields of sustainable energy, particularly for the industrial, commercial and institutional customers.

  • DAI Global LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    DAI Global LLC (DAI) has worked in more than 150 countries, implementing over 2,000 projects and delivering results across the spectrum of international development contexts, from stable societies and high-growth economies to challenging environments racked by political or military conflict. DAI works for fundamental social and economic development problems caused by inefficient markets, ineffective governance, and instability. The wide range of clients of DAI includes national and local governments, bilateral and multilateral donors, private corporations and philanthropies.

  • LAVOLA 1981, SA (Anthesis Group)

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Spain
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Lavola has more than 35 years’ experience in sustainability services. The company is specialized in:

    • Consultancy in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies (including engineering), Carbon footprint, Climate Change mitigation and adaptation, Life Cycle analysis, Social Responsibility and Sustainable Urban and Regional Development.
    • Sustainable Development Communication
    • Sustainable Development Education including programmes, learning materials, activities and Management of centres.
  • CLIMsystems Ltd

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    New Zealand
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    CLIMsystems Ltd provides software tools, consultancy services and data/knowledge for the assessment, management and reduction of climatic risks, under both current climate variability and future change. The geographic scope of its operations is global. The sectoral applications of CLIMsystems’ products and services include asset risk management, engineering and architectural design, academic research and education, supply chain analysis, regional and national planning, water resource and waste-water management, agricultural development and disaster risk reduction.

  • I CARE & CONSULT

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    France
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    I Care & Consult, specialist in environment & strategy, assists public and private organizations in order to successfully achieve their environmental transition. In developing countries, I Care & Consult work in close collaboration with financial institutions, providing technical assistance in order to enable the development of innovative projects based on climate technologies

  • DG Consulting Ltd

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Georgia
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    DG Consulting limited is  a professional consulting company, focusing on consultancy services  in development and  construction in  water and environment sector in Georgia and Worldwide.The Company has very specific experience working with mineral and fresh water, beverages and soft drink producer companies for water related issues, inclusive of   water treatment, initial water preparation, removal of specific components, QA/QC etc.In water sector, company is providing full cycle of consultancy services to private clients, development banks, international financial institutions etc.

  • HYDROC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Hydroc is active in Water resources management and disaster risk reduction research and consultancy with a specific focus on climate change induced risks in developing countries. Activities include climate downscaling, climate change impact assessment, the development of adaptation and mitigation options, climate smart development options and climate mainstreaming considering sector overarching and holistic approaches related to water.

  • SUNJIN Engineering and Architecture

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Korea
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    SUNJIN Engineering and Architecture co. Ltd is a multi-disciplinary consultant company located in South Korea, founded in 1975. The firm is made up of over 750 specialists working across the disciplines of Feasibility Studies, Technical Assistance Engineering, Project Management, Construction Management etc. SUNJIN E&A is able to work with a range of projects within the field of Environment, Waterworks, Urban planning, Roads & Traffic and Architecture.

  • Umweltbundesamt GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Umweltbundesamt GmbH is a government owned company which acts as the national agency for environmental protection and environmental control. The main tasks of the Agency are:

    - Assessment of the state of the environment and of its changes and trends

    - Development of measures to avoid/reduce environmental impacts

    - Planning and implementation of environmental policy decisions and enforcement of laws

    - Analysis of environmental pollutants

    - Environmental reporting (incl. GHG and AP)