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Turkey

Official Name:
Republic of Turkey
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Research and academic institution
Name:
Ms. Tugba Dogan Guzel
Position:
Expert Researcher
Phone:
+90 262 677 29 75
Emails:
tugba.dogan@tubitak.gov.tr

Energy profile

Turkey (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

About 99.9% of the Turkish population have access to electricity.The Turkish transmission network consists of 14,453 km of 400 kV lines, 86 km of 220 kV lines, 31,716 km of 154 kV lines, and 508 km of 66 kV lines. In addition, there are 200 km of 154 kV cables, and 22.8 km of 380 kV cables. 

Renewable energy potential

Turkey’s renewable energy sources are plentiful and extensive, and represent the second-largest domestic energy source after coal. Primary renewable energy resources in Turkey are: hydro, biomass, wind, biogas, geothermal and solar.Geothermal energyTurkey ranks 7th worldwide in geothermal resources which yield a potential of 2,000 MWe (electricity) and 31,500 MWt (thermal). However, the installed capacity is only 20 MWe and 1,077 MWt. A 52 MWe plant is currently under construction. The majority of geothermal resources in the country are found in Menderes Massif, in Western Anatolia.Wind energyTurkey has one of the highest potential for wind energy in Europe and there exists an economical potential of 10,000 MW. As of 2007, the installed capacity has increased to 200 MW, with a further 600 MW in construction. The Turkish Wind Energy Potential Atlas was developed in 2007. An estimated 5,000 MW of new wind capacity can be installed where the annual wind speed is higher than 8.5 m/s, with a further 48,000 MW where the annual wind speed is higher than 7.0 m/s.Solar energyTurkey lies in a sunny belt between 36º and 42ºN latitudes. The yearly average solar radiation is 3.6  kWh/m2/day, and the total yearly radiation period is approximately 2640 h, which is sufficient to provide adequate energy for solar thermal applications. Technical solar potential stands at 76 Mtoe. Photovoltaic applications in the country currently stand at around 1000 kW, and are mainly installed in areas where electricity transmission is not economically feasible.  In spite of this high potential, solar energy is not now widely used, except for flat-plate solar collectors. In 2007, solar water heating produced roughly 400 ktoe in the country.Hydro powerThere are 436 sites available for hydroelectric plant construction, distributed on 26 main river zones.  The total gross potential and total energy production of these sites are nearly 50 GW and 112 TWh/yr, respectively, and about 30% of the total gross potential may be economically exploitable. Installed capacity of hydroelectric plants in Turkey stood at 13,393 MW at the end of 2007. It is projected that hydroelectric power plant capacity will rise to 35,000 MW by the year 2020. Unused potential consists of many small hydro projects, which have traditionally been one of the most attractive options for private investors in Turkey.Biomass energyConsidering the natural resources and extent of agro-economic infrastructure, Turkey also has a significant potential in biomass. As of 2003, 15 million tons of forest residues and 5.4 million tons of plant and animal wastes are used for the production of energy. However, it is estimated that around 50-60 million tons of animal wastes and 50-100 million tons of agro-industry wastes can be used for production of energy. Among the renewable energy sources, biomass is important because its share of total energy consumption is still high in Turkey. Since 1980, the contribution of the biomass resources in the total energy consumption dropped from 20% to 5% in 2008. Biogas production potential has been estimated at some 2 Mtoe. Biodiesel production capacity is 1.5 Mt and bioethanol production capacity is about 3 Mt per year. High targets have been set for 2015 in terms of biofuel production; 1,250,000 tonnes of biodiesel, and 735,000 tonnes of bioethanol   

Energy framework

Whilst Turkey does not have a specific national energy strategy document, objectives including securing energy supply, diversification of the energy mix (including renewable energy development), and the opening of the electricity market to all consumers by 2015, are contained within the Institutional Strategic Plan 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.The Renewable Electricity Law was adopted in 2005, as the transposition of EU Directive 2001/77/EC. The law which enables government to purchase a maximum of 20% of electricity from renewable energy sources by was fully operational by 2007.Biodiesel and bioethanol are being developed under the Petrol Markets and Tobacco Markets Laws respectively.An Amending Law to the Renewable Energy Law was prepared in 2008, in order to provide further incentives to the renewable energy sector. According to the amending law, different minimum purchase prices varying between 5 Euro Cent/kWh to 18Euro Cent/kWh are stipulated for electricity produced from different types of renewable energy resources. The purchase obligations are provided to be extended to facilities established prior to 1 January 2016. The Energy Efficiency Law (EEL) of Turkey was developed as a result of Turkey's tasks of complying with the EU directives. The law, expected to achieve 25–30% savings in total energy consumption, came into force on May 2, 2007 through the law number 5627.  The law exploits the efficient use of energy and covers administrative structuring, energy auditing, financial instruments and incentives, awareness raising and the establishment of an Energy Service Company (ESCO) market for energy efficiency (EE) services.The Law No. 5686 on the Law on Geothermal resources and natural mineral waters (June 03, 2007) to set forth the rules and principles for exploring, producing and protecting geothermal and natural mineral water resources this law is enforced.The Law No. 5346 on the Use of Renewable Energy Resources for Electricity Production Purposes (May 18, 2005) was created to ensure the widespread use of renewable energy sources, increase resource diversification, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and protect the environment. Within the scope of this law were conditions for the creation of a feed-in tariff system, combined with guaranteed purchase agreements for electricity generated from renewable energy sources, in addition to a guarantee-of-origin certificate system. Differentiation of tariff structure for different renewable energy sources was introduced in 2008 with the Amending Law. The tariff is valid for the first ten years of plants set up before 31 December 2011. Further amendments to the Law were made in 2011, further diversifying feed-in tariff structure, whilst limiting total production capacity of licensed solar energy companies to 600 MW by December 2013. Additional incentives will be offered to companies that utilise local manufacturing in the production of renewable energy infrastructure. 

Source
Static Source:
  • ACCIONA Ingeniería, S.A.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Spain
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    ACCIONA Ingeniería is the engineering firm of ACCIONA Business Group, one of the leading Spanish companies trading on the IBEX 35. With a history spanning more than a century, ACCIONA is mainly involved in renewable energy, infrastructure, water, and services. Its strategy is based on two concepts: sustainability and social well-being as the cornerstones of economic growth, environmental balance and social progress.

    ACCIONA Ingeniería brings more than 60 years of leadership in the civil, industrial and environmental engineering sectors as well as in several architectural fields.

  • KPMG Samjong Accounting Corp.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Korea
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The KPMG network employs 600 dedicated CC&S professionals located in more than 60 countries, including emerging economies and developing countries. This presents accumulated experiences and strong global presence built upon the extensive network of KPMG with key players from public and private sector in the areas of climate change and international development.

  • Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Spain
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    The Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research (Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas - CIEMAT) is a public research organization focused on energy and environment and the technologies related to them. The CIEMAT main lines of action are the study, development, promotion and optimization of various sources as renewable energies, study of their impact on the environment, development of new technologies; not forgetting areas of basic research such as high-energy physics and molecular and cellular biology.

  • Options for Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Coastal Environments

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This guide is about taking account of, and managing, ecosystems to help people adapt to climate change in coastal areas: coastal Ecosystem based Adaptation (EBA). Vital to human wellbeing, adaptation to climate change is increasingly important in international policy discussions such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which have acknowledged the potential importance of EBA in meeting this challenge.

  • 3 ideas B.V.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    3 Ideas Ltd is an award winning consultancy specialising in technology development and transfer, architecture, design and cultural research. The consultancy was initially created in response to the need to preserve regional cultures, which are fast disappearing under the pressures of globalization.

    Technology Development and Transfer, Renewable Resources

  • LAVOLA 1981, SA (Anthesis Group)

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Spain
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Lavola has more than 35 years’ experience in sustainability services. The company is specialized in:

    • Consultancy in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies (including engineering), Carbon footprint, Climate Change mitigation and adaptation, Life Cycle analysis, Social Responsibility and Sustainable Urban and Regional Development.
    • Sustainable Development Communication
    • Sustainable Development Education including programmes, learning materials, activities and Management of centres.
  • Korea Productivity Center Quality Assurance

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Korea
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Korea Productivity Center Quality Assurance (KPCQA) is a national top comprehensive certification authority affiliated under The Ministry of Trade Industry and Energy, established by Article 32 of Industrial Development Act in 1994. KPCQA is specialized in : Green Building Standards and Certification Systems, ISO management system for 50001 (energy management system) & 140001 (environment management system), R&D on energy productivity in building and factory.

  • South–South cooperation and triangular cooperation on technologies for adaptation in the water and agriculture sectors

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Adapting water management and agricultural practices to climate variability is essential and requires integrated responses. This brief explores how countries can harness south-south and triangular cooperation for accelerating the exchange of adaptation technologies, knowledge and practices in the water and agriculture sectors. It also highlights challenges, best practices, lessons learned, and the roles of stakeholders in replicating and transferring such technologies.

  • CLIMsystems Ltd

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    New Zealand
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    CLIMsystems Ltd provides software tools, consultancy services and data/knowledge for the assessment, management and reduction of climatic risks, under both current climate variability and future change. The geographic scope of its operations is global. The sectoral applications of CLIMsystems’ products and services include asset risk management, engineering and architectural design, academic research and education, supply chain analysis, regional and national planning, water resource and waste-water management, agricultural development and disaster risk reduction.