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Turkey

Official Name:
Republic of Turkey
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Research and academic institution
Name:
Ms. Tugba Dogan Guzel
Position:
Expert Researcher
Phone:
+90 262 677 29 75
Emails:
tugba.dogan@tubitak.gov.tr

Energy profile

Turkey (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

About 99.9% of the Turkish population have access to electricity.The Turkish transmission network consists of 14,453 km of 400 kV lines, 86 km of 220 kV lines, 31,716 km of 154 kV lines, and 508 km of 66 kV lines. In addition, there are 200 km of 154 kV cables, and 22.8 km of 380 kV cables. 

Renewable energy potential

Turkey’s renewable energy sources are plentiful and extensive, and represent the second-largest domestic energy source after coal. Primary renewable energy resources in Turkey are: hydro, biomass, wind, biogas, geothermal and solar.Geothermal energyTurkey ranks 7th worldwide in geothermal resources which yield a potential of 2,000 MWe (electricity) and 31,500 MWt (thermal). However, the installed capacity is only 20 MWe and 1,077 MWt. A 52 MWe plant is currently under construction. The majority of geothermal resources in the country are found in Menderes Massif, in Western Anatolia.Wind energyTurkey has one of the highest potential for wind energy in Europe and there exists an economical potential of 10,000 MW. As of 2007, the installed capacity has increased to 200 MW, with a further 600 MW in construction. The Turkish Wind Energy Potential Atlas was developed in 2007. An estimated 5,000 MW of new wind capacity can be installed where the annual wind speed is higher than 8.5 m/s, with a further 48,000 MW where the annual wind speed is higher than 7.0 m/s.Solar energyTurkey lies in a sunny belt between 36º and 42ºN latitudes. The yearly average solar radiation is 3.6  kWh/m2/day, and the total yearly radiation period is approximately 2640 h, which is sufficient to provide adequate energy for solar thermal applications. Technical solar potential stands at 76 Mtoe. Photovoltaic applications in the country currently stand at around 1000 kW, and are mainly installed in areas where electricity transmission is not economically feasible.  In spite of this high potential, solar energy is not now widely used, except for flat-plate solar collectors. In 2007, solar water heating produced roughly 400 ktoe in the country.Hydro powerThere are 436 sites available for hydroelectric plant construction, distributed on 26 main river zones.  The total gross potential and total energy production of these sites are nearly 50 GW and 112 TWh/yr, respectively, and about 30% of the total gross potential may be economically exploitable. Installed capacity of hydroelectric plants in Turkey stood at 13,393 MW at the end of 2007. It is projected that hydroelectric power plant capacity will rise to 35,000 MW by the year 2020. Unused potential consists of many small hydro projects, which have traditionally been one of the most attractive options for private investors in Turkey.Biomass energyConsidering the natural resources and extent of agro-economic infrastructure, Turkey also has a significant potential in biomass. As of 2003, 15 million tons of forest residues and 5.4 million tons of plant and animal wastes are used for the production of energy. However, it is estimated that around 50-60 million tons of animal wastes and 50-100 million tons of agro-industry wastes can be used for production of energy. Among the renewable energy sources, biomass is important because its share of total energy consumption is still high in Turkey. Since 1980, the contribution of the biomass resources in the total energy consumption dropped from 20% to 5% in 2008. Biogas production potential has been estimated at some 2 Mtoe. Biodiesel production capacity is 1.5 Mt and bioethanol production capacity is about 3 Mt per year. High targets have been set for 2015 in terms of biofuel production; 1,250,000 tonnes of biodiesel, and 735,000 tonnes of bioethanol   

Energy framework

Whilst Turkey does not have a specific national energy strategy document, objectives including securing energy supply, diversification of the energy mix (including renewable energy development), and the opening of the electricity market to all consumers by 2015, are contained within the Institutional Strategic Plan 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.The Renewable Electricity Law was adopted in 2005, as the transposition of EU Directive 2001/77/EC. The law which enables government to purchase a maximum of 20% of electricity from renewable energy sources by was fully operational by 2007.Biodiesel and bioethanol are being developed under the Petrol Markets and Tobacco Markets Laws respectively.An Amending Law to the Renewable Energy Law was prepared in 2008, in order to provide further incentives to the renewable energy sector. According to the amending law, different minimum purchase prices varying between 5 Euro Cent/kWh to 18Euro Cent/kWh are stipulated for electricity produced from different types of renewable energy resources. The purchase obligations are provided to be extended to facilities established prior to 1 January 2016. The Energy Efficiency Law (EEL) of Turkey was developed as a result of Turkey's tasks of complying with the EU directives. The law, expected to achieve 25–30% savings in total energy consumption, came into force on May 2, 2007 through the law number 5627.  The law exploits the efficient use of energy and covers administrative structuring, energy auditing, financial instruments and incentives, awareness raising and the establishment of an Energy Service Company (ESCO) market for energy efficiency (EE) services.The Law No. 5686 on the Law on Geothermal resources and natural mineral waters (June 03, 2007) to set forth the rules and principles for exploring, producing and protecting geothermal and natural mineral water resources this law is enforced.The Law No. 5346 on the Use of Renewable Energy Resources for Electricity Production Purposes (May 18, 2005) was created to ensure the widespread use of renewable energy sources, increase resource diversification, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and protect the environment. Within the scope of this law were conditions for the creation of a feed-in tariff system, combined with guaranteed purchase agreements for electricity generated from renewable energy sources, in addition to a guarantee-of-origin certificate system. Differentiation of tariff structure for different renewable energy sources was introduced in 2008 with the Amending Law. The tariff is valid for the first ten years of plants set up before 31 December 2011. Further amendments to the Law were made in 2011, further diversifying feed-in tariff structure, whilst limiting total production capacity of licensed solar energy companies to 600 MW by December 2013. Additional incentives will be offered to companies that utilise local manufacturing in the production of renewable energy infrastructure. 

Source
Static Source:
  • The Evidence of Benefits for Poor People of Increased Renewable Electricity Capacity: Literature Review

    Type: 
    Publication
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    This report provides the results of a review of the evidence that investments in electricity-generating capacity have benefits for poor people, and what factors influence that relationship. The review begins by elucidating a theory to break down the causal chain between additional renewable electricity generation capacity and poverty impacts in four stages or links, which can be formulated as four research questions: (1) What is the link between increased renewable electricity capacity and higher availability and reliability of supply?

  • ENVIS Centre on Renewable Energy and Environment

    Type: 
    Publication
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    The major objectives of the ENVIS Centre are collection and dissemination of information in order to support and promote research, development and innovation among researcher, policy makers, academics and other stakeholders. The Centre is actively engaged in data gaps identification and bridging, resource generation and data collection, capacity-building and information dissemination activities.

  • Green Cooling for a Warming World, English subtitles

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    This movie explains the link between cooling, climate change and sustainable development! It begins with the introduction of a cold chain, which plays a crucial part for food safety: Currently, up to 40 % of all foodstuffs go to waste due to a lack of proper cold storage. The second part of the movie portrays refrigeration and air-conditioning as part of our little "Green Cooling- family", who discovers various uses of cooling in their life and learns about its effects on the world's climate.

  • Green Cooling for a Warming World, English / Portuguese subtitles

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This movie explains the link between cooling, climate change and sustainable development! It begins with the introduction of a cold chain, which plays a crucial part for food safety: Currently, up to 40 % of all foodstuffs go to waste due to a lack of proper cold storage. The second part of the movie portrays refrigeration and air-conditioning as part of our little "Green Cooling- family", who discovers various uses of cooling in their life and learns about its effects on the world's climate.

  • NAMAs in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam blowing sectors

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    This handbook aims to serve policy makers and practitioners in developing countries as a comprehensive guideline for the preparation and implementation of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam blowing (RAC&F) sectors. To date it is the only comprehensive compendium addressing the RAC&F sectors with respect to NAMAs, or, more generally, cost-effective mitigation actions on a sectoral level.

  • Using Concentrated Solar Power Techniques to Generate Electric Power in Iraq, a Review on Present Status and Future Directions

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    Present reserves of oil and natural gas can only cover consumption at this rate for the next 50 years in the case of oil, and for the next 70 years in the case of natural gas. Therefore, one of the fundamental priorities for a country such as Iraq is to use several renewable energies (RE) sources and environmentally friendly energy conversion technologies. Iraq is endowed with large reserves of energy sources, mainly hydrocarbons and a considerable potential for the utilization of RE sources especially with respect to solar energy.

  • Kirkuk municipal waste to electrical energy

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Municipal solid waste (MSW) in Kirkuk city in the north of Iraq poses a serious problem having adverse effects on environment and health of the citizens. Both quantity and volume of MSW have continued to increase with the rapid growth of city population. The population of Kirkuk city, on average, has increased by 3% per annum over the past two decades. The population of Kirkuk city is predicted to increase from 1,050,000 in 2008 to 1,445,556 in 2020. The generation of waste is expected to grow in the future with the rise of city population.

  • Modelling the Effects of Climate Change on Hydroelectric Power in Dokan, Iraq

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Due to shift in the average patterns of weather, climate change became one of the significant development challenges. Hydropower is currently being utilized in more than 150 countries, including 11,000 stations with 27,000 generating units. Increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation in recent years, because it is renewable energy. Temperature and precipitation effects from global climate change could alter future hydrologic conditions in Iraq and, as a result, future hydropower generation. This is also valid for the Middle East and Iraq.

  • Cost optimization of hybrid stand-alone power system for cooled store in Kirkuk

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    Publication
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    However, the design, control, and optimization of the hybrid systems are usually very complex tasks; the stand-alone hybrid solar–diesel power generation system is recognized generally more suitable than systems that only have one energy source for supply of electricity to off-grid applications. A proposed PV system has been designed and optimized using HOMER software computer model to supply a potato cooled store in Kirkuk city in Iraq.