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Thailand

Official Name:
Kingdom of Thailand

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Surachai Sathitkunarat
Position:
Vice President
Phone:
+662 160 5432
Emails:
surachai@sti.or.th

Energy profile

Thailand (2014)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Population access to electricity (2009, source: IEA): 99.3%The growth in rural electrification in Thailand was relatively low in the early 1970s. Only 7% of poorer households had access to electricity. In the 1980s, with the implementation of the long-term national master plan for rural electrification by the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA), access to electricity in poor households had remarkably increased, and by 1988, reached 74%. Electricity access had improved further in the 1990s, and reached 98% in 2000. Access to electricity by the non-poor households had crossed the 90% level in the mid-1980s, and had reached more than 99% by 2000.High voltage transmission in the country operates at 500 kV. Thailand is connected with the power grids of Laos and Malaysia, with puchases totalling 1,288 MW from Laos and 300 MW from Malaysia in 2010.

Renewable energy potential

Renewable energy, on the other hand, could be an option to ensure energy security and reduce dependence on foreign energy resources. With relatively good solar irradiation and large domestic biomass resources, as well as high potentials for decentralised power production, there are still various opportunities for the country to achieve its renewable energy targets. The high number of applications for solar power projects under the feed-in tariff has indicated considerable interest of investors. Many jobs have already been created in the construction industry and in the agricultural/biomass sector.WindThere is considerable potential for wind energy on a larger scale in Thailand, especially in the centre and in the Western regions of the country. The wind current in Thailand is rather light, thus it has been frequently overlooked. Unlike large wind turbines manufactured for the European and U.S. markets; the country needs small-sized wind turbines to comply with local conditions. The present capacity of low speed wind turbines in Thailand is 400-1,000 watts. The two major obstacles in using such turbines is the cost per unit of electricity generation and the lack of investment in Thailand for the low speed turbines. However, Thailand does forecast a large increase in use in the near future as these issues will be overcome.BiofuelsSolid biomass and waste have played a strong role as an energy source in Thailand and comprise roughly 16% of energy consumption. Most biomass feedstock is from sugarcane, rice husk, bagasse, wood waste, and oil palm residue and is used in residential and manufacturing sectors. Thailand has promoted biomass for heat and electricity, though growth has been very gradual due to industry inefficiencies and environmental concerns.HydroThe government has been sponsoring development projects of small hydro power plants for a new planned capacity of 350 MW. The Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) and the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) are the main institutions involved with mini- and micro-hydro power plants. DEDE has also installed many village-level hydropower plants, and there is considerable potential for village-scale small hydro in east and central Thailand.SolarThe annual average daily solar radiation in Thailand is about 5.0 to 5.3 kWh/m2/day, corresponding to 18-19 MJ/m2/day. High values, of about 20-24 MJ/m2/day, are recorded during April and May. The north eastern and northern regions receive roughly 2,200 to 2,900 hours of sunshine per year (equivalent to 6-8 sunshine-hours per day). Thailand currently uses solar cells for electricity generation and solar thermal units for thermal..Local administration organizations in every province, municipalities, Provincial Administration Organizations (PAO), and Tambol (sub-district) Administration Organizations (TAO) are paying particular attention to solar cells as they are becoming increasingly important in rural remote areas, where there are no electricity transmission lines known as off-grid connections. The cells can undoubtedly be used for electricity generation for lighting systems on roads and energy for wastewater pumping in wastewater treatment systems.

Energy framework

Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (2012-2021)The Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (2012–2021) sets the framework to increase the share of renewable and alternative energy to account for 25% of total energy consumption by 2021. This plan promotes the use of renewable energy (such as wind, solar, and biomass), especially for power and heat generation, and it supports the use of transport biofuels, including ethanol-blended gasoline (gasohol) and biodiesel.National Power Development Plan (PDP)The Electricity Authority of Thailand (EGAT) formulated a national power development plan for the period of 2010-2030, known as PDP 2010, within the framework of the Ministry of Energy’s policies. This PDP is dubbed the “green” PDP as it incorporates more green energy into the plan. It replaces the former PDP 2007 plan and its revisions. The plan was first approved by the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) and the Cabinet in November, 2010. After the Fukushima NPP Accident, the plan has been revised twice. The third and current (as of March 2013) revision was approved by the Cabinet in June, 2012.The plans have been used as a guideline for planning the construction of EGAT’s new power plants, power purchase from independent power producers (IPPs), small power producers (SPPs) and neighbouring countries, as well as transmission system development to accommodate these new power capacities. According to the current revision of PDP 2010, the net additional capacity during 2012-2030 is 55,130 MW (this amount includes the additional capacity from new power plant projects and some power purchased from SPPs and VSPPs). When adding the net additional into the current installed capacity as of December 2011 and subtracting the capacity of retired power plant from the system, the total installed capacity becomes 70,686 MW in 2030.The strategies of PDP 2010 focused on:Security and adequacy of the power system, following the policies of the Ministry of Energy (MoEN) on environmental concerns;Promotion of energy efficiency and renewable energy to be in line with the Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EE Plan 2011-2030) and the Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2012 - 2021);Promotion of cogeneration systems for efficient electricity generation.Energy Efficiency Development Plan 2011–2030On the demand side, Thailand adopted a 20-year Energy Efficiency Development Plan 2011–2030, which aims to improve energy intensity by 25% in 2030 compared to the 2010 levels.Thailand Energy Efficiency Revolving Fund (TEERF)TEERF was established by the Government and managed by the Ministry of Energy, Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE). The objective of the TEERF is to provide access to capital for energy efficiency projects, increase awareness of energy efficiency opportunities and improve procedures and implementation of the projects.Development and Promotion of Renewable Energy EntrepreneursIn 2010 The Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO) launched this program to endorse the building of large scale entrepreneurship in green technology, particularly on renewable energy. Principally, EPPO acts as a promoter and a facilitator for local entrepreneurs to invest in new technologies. Once the prototypes are ready, EPPO will support them on the expansion of technologies at a national level.

Source
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  • GCM downscaled CGM data portal

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    The data distributed here are in ARC GRID, and ARC ASCII format, in decimal degrees and datum WGS84. CCAFS and its partners have processed this data to provide seamless continuous future climate surfaces. Users are prohibited from any commercial, non-free resale, or redistribution without explicit written permission from CCAFS or the data-developing institutions.

  • Describing Socioeconomic Futures for Climate Change Research and Assessment: Report of a Workshop

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    The book covers the 2010 Workshop on Describing Socioeconomic Futures for Climate Change Research and Assessment, which was organized in response to help understand climate change vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity. The need for improved analysis of feedbacks between human and climate systems was one of the themes that emerged from the international workshop. The books reviews the state of science for considering socioeconomic changes over long time frames, and it clarifies definitions and concepts to facilitate communication across research communities.

  • Technologies to support climate change adaptation in developing Asia

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    Approach:

    This report discusses specific climate change impact and vulnerabilities, and identifies technologies needed to help reduce those vulnerabilities. It then presents examples of existing technologies that will meet those needs for six sectors:

  • Food Security CASE Maps

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    Can the world's farmers meet the growing demand for food as an uncertain climate future adds to food security challenges from a growing population with higher incomes? IFPRI partnered with StatPlanet to offer Food Security CASE Maps: interactive Climate, Agriculture, and Socio-Economic maps underlie the analysis in IFPRIís latest report: Food Security, Farming, and Climate Change to 2050.

  • Climate Change in Southeast Asia and Assessment on Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation on Rice Production and Water Resources

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    This research project aimed to enhance the research capacity of scientists in South-East Asia on the subject of climate change with a focus on impact, vulnerability and adaptation, especially on rice production and water resources, which include assessment of impact, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change on the food production and water resource sectors. The major outcomes from this research consist of data, which have been used for many studies on climate change in the South-East Asia region.

  • Climate Change Adaptation and Technology: Gaps and Needs in Southeast Asia

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    According to this report, most South-East Asian countries are vulnerable to climate change risks and impacts. This report presents the specific country situations, particularly for the water, agriculture and socio-economics sectors. This is followed by a presentation of the specific gaps and needs which were identified.

  • Climate Analogues

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    The CCAFS Climate Analogue tool allows uses spatial and temporal variability in climate projections to identify and map sites with statistically similar climates across space and time. This novel approach provides useful insights and practical knowledge to support the evaluation and formulation of agricultural adaptation options and strategies.

  • Building Climate Resilience in the Agriculture Sector in Asia and the Pacific

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    The report seeks to provide a framework for approaching this challenge by establishing baselines of knowledge on climate impacts and plausible theories about how to build longer-term adaptive capacity and resilience. The specific objectives are to provide a critical synthesis of the evidence and future scenarios of climate change in the region by analyzing both the impacts of agriculture on climate change and the impacts climate change is projected to have on agriculture.

  • IFDC Annual Report 2015

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    Our annual reports summarize our projects and activities in our divisions throughout the world. They include project updates, success stories, training updates, initiatives, and financial summaries.