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Thailand

Official Name:
Kingdom of Thailand

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Surachai Sathitkunarat
Position:
Vice President
Phone:
+662 160 5432
Emails:
surachai@sti.or.th

Energy profile

Thailand (2014)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Population access to electricity (2009, source: IEA): 99.3%The growth in rural electrification in Thailand was relatively low in the early 1970s. Only 7% of poorer households had access to electricity. In the 1980s, with the implementation of the long-term national master plan for rural electrification by the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA), access to electricity in poor households had remarkably increased, and by 1988, reached 74%. Electricity access had improved further in the 1990s, and reached 98% in 2000. Access to electricity by the non-poor households had crossed the 90% level in the mid-1980s, and had reached more than 99% by 2000.High voltage transmission in the country operates at 500 kV. Thailand is connected with the power grids of Laos and Malaysia, with puchases totalling 1,288 MW from Laos and 300 MW from Malaysia in 2010.

Renewable energy potential

Renewable energy, on the other hand, could be an option to ensure energy security and reduce dependence on foreign energy resources. With relatively good solar irradiation and large domestic biomass resources, as well as high potentials for decentralised power production, there are still various opportunities for the country to achieve its renewable energy targets. The high number of applications for solar power projects under the feed-in tariff has indicated considerable interest of investors. Many jobs have already been created in the construction industry and in the agricultural/biomass sector.WindThere is considerable potential for wind energy on a larger scale in Thailand, especially in the centre and in the Western regions of the country. The wind current in Thailand is rather light, thus it has been frequently overlooked. Unlike large wind turbines manufactured for the European and U.S. markets; the country needs small-sized wind turbines to comply with local conditions. The present capacity of low speed wind turbines in Thailand is 400-1,000 watts. The two major obstacles in using such turbines is the cost per unit of electricity generation and the lack of investment in Thailand for the low speed turbines. However, Thailand does forecast a large increase in use in the near future as these issues will be overcome.BiofuelsSolid biomass and waste have played a strong role as an energy source in Thailand and comprise roughly 16% of energy consumption. Most biomass feedstock is from sugarcane, rice husk, bagasse, wood waste, and oil palm residue and is used in residential and manufacturing sectors. Thailand has promoted biomass for heat and electricity, though growth has been very gradual due to industry inefficiencies and environmental concerns.HydroThe government has been sponsoring development projects of small hydro power plants for a new planned capacity of 350 MW. The Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) and the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) are the main institutions involved with mini- and micro-hydro power plants. DEDE has also installed many village-level hydropower plants, and there is considerable potential for village-scale small hydro in east and central Thailand.SolarThe annual average daily solar radiation in Thailand is about 5.0 to 5.3 kWh/m2/day, corresponding to 18-19 MJ/m2/day. High values, of about 20-24 MJ/m2/day, are recorded during April and May. The north eastern and northern regions receive roughly 2,200 to 2,900 hours of sunshine per year (equivalent to 6-8 sunshine-hours per day). Thailand currently uses solar cells for electricity generation and solar thermal units for thermal..Local administration organizations in every province, municipalities, Provincial Administration Organizations (PAO), and Tambol (sub-district) Administration Organizations (TAO) are paying particular attention to solar cells as they are becoming increasingly important in rural remote areas, where there are no electricity transmission lines known as off-grid connections. The cells can undoubtedly be used for electricity generation for lighting systems on roads and energy for wastewater pumping in wastewater treatment systems.

Energy framework

Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (2012-2021)The Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (2012–2021) sets the framework to increase the share of renewable and alternative energy to account for 25% of total energy consumption by 2021. This plan promotes the use of renewable energy (such as wind, solar, and biomass), especially for power and heat generation, and it supports the use of transport biofuels, including ethanol-blended gasoline (gasohol) and biodiesel.National Power Development Plan (PDP)The Electricity Authority of Thailand (EGAT) formulated a national power development plan for the period of 2010-2030, known as PDP 2010, within the framework of the Ministry of Energy’s policies. This PDP is dubbed the “green” PDP as it incorporates more green energy into the plan. It replaces the former PDP 2007 plan and its revisions. The plan was first approved by the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) and the Cabinet in November, 2010. After the Fukushima NPP Accident, the plan has been revised twice. The third and current (as of March 2013) revision was approved by the Cabinet in June, 2012.The plans have been used as a guideline for planning the construction of EGAT’s new power plants, power purchase from independent power producers (IPPs), small power producers (SPPs) and neighbouring countries, as well as transmission system development to accommodate these new power capacities. According to the current revision of PDP 2010, the net additional capacity during 2012-2030 is 55,130 MW (this amount includes the additional capacity from new power plant projects and some power purchased from SPPs and VSPPs). When adding the net additional into the current installed capacity as of December 2011 and subtracting the capacity of retired power plant from the system, the total installed capacity becomes 70,686 MW in 2030.The strategies of PDP 2010 focused on:Security and adequacy of the power system, following the policies of the Ministry of Energy (MoEN) on environmental concerns;Promotion of energy efficiency and renewable energy to be in line with the Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EE Plan 2011-2030) and the Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2012 - 2021);Promotion of cogeneration systems for efficient electricity generation.Energy Efficiency Development Plan 2011–2030On the demand side, Thailand adopted a 20-year Energy Efficiency Development Plan 2011–2030, which aims to improve energy intensity by 25% in 2030 compared to the 2010 levels.Thailand Energy Efficiency Revolving Fund (TEERF)TEERF was established by the Government and managed by the Ministry of Energy, Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE). The objective of the TEERF is to provide access to capital for energy efficiency projects, increase awareness of energy efficiency opportunities and improve procedures and implementation of the projects.Development and Promotion of Renewable Energy EntrepreneursIn 2010 The Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO) launched this program to endorse the building of large scale entrepreneurship in green technology, particularly on renewable energy. Principally, EPPO acts as a promoter and a facilitator for local entrepreneurs to invest in new technologies. Once the prototypes are ready, EPPO will support them on the expansion of technologies at a national level.

Source
Static Source:
  • Gesellschaft für Organisation, Planung und Ausbildung mbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    GOPA Consultants is a private consulting company with over 50 years of experience in designing and implementing technical assistance projects for national and international donors. Its main areas of competence are: educationand employment promotion; governance and economic development; infrastructure development; M&E; rural development and environment as well as statistics. Among others, GOPA has successfully implemented projects on climate change mitigation and adaptation, sustainable agriculture, food security, NRM and biodiversity, drought resilience, and food security.

  • Acclimatise Group Ltd

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Acclimatise has been engaged in the delivery of climate risk management since its inception in 2004, advising private and public sector clients in developed and developing countries, on how to make their policies, projects, investments and assets resilient to climate change risks today and into the future. Acclimatise has been active in assessing and supporting climate services development and increasing capacity to use technologies to build resilience, particularly in developing countries.

  • Perspectives Climate Group GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Perspectives Climate Group develops policy instruments for GHG mitigation for NAMAs and NDCs as well as support services for GHG mitigation projects under market mechanisms, with activities in over 40 countries in Europe, Africa and Asia. Perspectives supports design of mitigation documentation for efficiency in power plants, industrial boilers, and buildings, as well as municipal waste management, waste-water, renewable energy and demand-side energy efficiency. Perspectives is specialized in methodologies for baselines under market mechanisms and supporting access to climate finance.

  • I CARE & CONSULT

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    France
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    I Care & Consult, specialist in environment & strategy, assists public and private organizations in order to successfully achieve their environmental transition. In developing countries, I Care & Consult work in close collaboration with financial institutions, providing technical assistance in order to enable the development of innovative projects based on climate technologies

  • Vietnam Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Vietnam
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    VIGMR, established since 1965 under MONRE, is leading research institute in Vietnam on Geosciences and Mineral Resources. With mandate to boost sustainable national development by geoscientific and technological advancement, VIGMR conducts researches, survey and development of georesources, R&D and achievements diffusion  corresponding to geohazards and global environment changes. Geopark, renewable energy, waste treatment, phytoremediation of environment, CO2 mineralization and other climate change technologies, and community-based capacity building are some focuses of VIGMR. 

  • Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Winrock International works with people around the world to increase economic opportunity, sustain natural resources, & protect the environment. Winrock provides climate change mitigation & adaptation expertise in AFOLU sector, REDD+ programs design & development, GHG measurement & monitoring, TA & expert advisory, training, & capacity building. Winrock International has experience in REDD+ programs development & implementation, in countries such as Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, & others. 

  • HYDROC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Hydroc is active in Water resources management and disaster risk reduction research and consultancy with a specific focus on climate change induced risks in developing countries. Activities include climate downscaling, climate change impact assessment, the development of adaptation and mitigation options, climate smart development options and climate mainstreaming considering sector overarching and holistic approaches related to water.

  • Ramboll Danmark A/S

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Denmark
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Ramboll is an engineering, design and consultancy company employing 13,000 experts worldwide. Ramboll provides services across de following sectors: energy, water, environment, health, buildings, transport, and management consulting etc. Ramboll's multidisciplinary approach allows them to provide best available solutions in mitigation and adaptation technologies, and their worldwide presence and expertise facilitates the transfer of technology to developing countries.

  • Pilot Asia-Pacific Climate Technology Network and Finance Centre

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Relation to CTCN:
    Knowledge Partner

    The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) are working in partnership, with co-funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), to accelerate the adoption, deployment, and investment in environmentally sound technologies in Asia and the Pacific.