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Togo

Official Name:
Togolese Republic

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Ms. Mery Yaou
Phone:
+228 22 21 33 21, fax: +228 22210333
Emails:
denv_togo@yahoo.fr, ymery69@yahoo.fr

Energy profile

Togo (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

In Togo, only 20% of the population had access to electricity in 2009, lagging not only behind Sub-Saharan Africa in general, at 25%, but also behind its neighbours Ghana (60%) and Benin (24.1%). Due to frequent inadequacies in the domestic power grid, Ghana supplies a large proportion of Togo's electricity needs through interconnection of the countries' national grids. Interconnections already exist with a number of the country’s immediate neighbours, including Benin, Cote d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. Transmission in the country primarily runs north-south, at 161 kV. The Northern interconnection with Ghana and Burkina Faso, running from Dapaong, is not currently connected to the rest of the high-voltage network, whose northernmost point reaches Djamde. Distribution in the country is predominantly at 33 or 20 kV.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyThe available solar radiation is between 4.4 and 4.5 kWh/m²/day. Up to now, there have already been some experiences with thermal solar energy and photovoltaic (PV) energy. This includes solar water heating, solar cooking and PV systems for telecommunication services, water pumping, railway stations and some other small scale applications. In order to improve the access to modern energy services in rural areas of Togo, there is still a significant need to promote the utilisation of solar energy. Some non-profit organisations are active in the solar energy field in Togo, promoting the indigenous production of photovoltaic cells; however, the projects are currently operating on a limited scale. Wind energyTogo, just like its neighbour Ghana, has considerable wind potential, which is so far not being exploited. Numerous sites have been identified in the country as having average wind speeds in excess of 5 m/s, indicating a good potential for the exploitation of wind energy in the country, particularly in coastal areas. Wind utilisation in the country so far is limited to use as an alternative, decentralised energy source for rural communities. Biomass energyThe biomass potential of Togo is estimated at 2.6 million toe, and mainly consists of wood, charcoal, and vegetable waste. With regard to the production and utilisation of biogas, there are significant resources available, mainly from agricultural waste (cotton, maize stem etc.) and livestock. Due to the lack of technology and capacity, and the proportionally high cost of family-scale biogas installations, there are no existing biogas production sites in Togo up to now, although the country offers a significant resource for the development of this technology. Geothermal energyCurrently, there is no utilisation of geothermal energy in Togo, nor has any resource assessment into the potential for power generation been conducted.  HydropowerTogo has more than 50 rivers and waterfalls that offer abundant potential for mini- and micro-hydropower for the production of electricity. About 40 sites, located on the rivers of Mono and Oti, offer a potential overall production capacity of 224 MW. Up to now however, there are very few hydropower installations available for electricity generation.

Energy framework

In Togo, there are currently no dedicated policies for renewable energies. According to the Togo Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper - Interim (PRSP-I) for 2006–2008 however, the government has pursued several objectives in the energy sector. These include the implementation of policies for the promotion of RE, the increase of electricity supply for rural areas and the implementation of regulatory institutions. Under the PRSP-I, a number of priorities were also formulated, including institutional reform of the energy sector and a rapid development of production capacity to alleviate energy shortages; the creation of a framework for the development and financing of rural electrification and expansion of the previously-implemented Rural Electrification Master Plan; and the implementation of legislative and regulatory frameworks for the substitution of traditional energy use with renewable energy use. Currently, an ongoing study into the electric power sub-sector in the country is being performed by the SOFRECO-IIC group, and a consultant firm is being selected for the elaboration of policy documents in the energy sector. Various programs are in the implementation stage in the country, pertaining to improving the energy security of Togo and promoting new and renewable energies. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a World Bank Group member, is collaborating with NGOs in the country to improve the condition of power generation capacities, as well as implement new generation solutions. The EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund (ITF) is supporting the CEB with financing for the rehabilitation of transmission and distribution networks in Benin and Togo, as well as extensions to the interconnected network of the two countries. In addition, private firms from Europe have expressed interest in promoting the production of ethanol as a fuel source in the country, and feasibility studies are being conducted.

Source
Static Source:
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