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Eswatini

Official Name:
Kingdom of Eswatini

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Bafana Simelane
Phone:
+268 2404 6162 
Emails:
bafanasim@gmail.com

Energy profile

Swaziland (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

There is an inadequate electricity supply. The overall electrification rate is approximately 27%. It is estimated that 40% of urban areas and 4% of rural areas are electrified.One 400 kV transmission line crosses through Swaziland, and connects to the network at the recently-completed Edwaleni II substation. Country-scale transmission occurs via a 132 kV grid, with 66 kV lines. 

Renewable energy potential

Solar EnergySwaziland's solar regime is not well documented and it is necessary to collect sufficient and reliable data in order to map out the resource. However, indications from SADC maps, satellite images, and hourly sunshine data indicate that the annual averages could lie between 4 to 6 kWh/m2/day. A program to install solar water heaters in public institutions as an energy efficiency measure is also underway.HydropowerIt is estimated that Swaziland has a gross theoretical hydropower potential of approximately 3800 GWh/year, with a potential installed capacity of 200 MW. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy established a database on the potential of developing mini-micro hydropower electricity schemes.  The target was to pin point sites around the country where appropriate river basins exist, which could be used to generate electricity and help quantify the cost of  establishing new electricity schemes.  A report was produced from the study and 35 sites were identified.  The capacity of the schemes identified ranged between 0.032MW to 1.525MW.Biomass EnergyTotal forestry cover in the country is estimated at 625,400 hectares, with 463,000 hectares of this being indigenous forest. The harvesting of indigenous wood fuels is not managed. Biofuels are also being considered for the country, with a proposed 10% mix of anhydrous ethanol in transport fuel. The Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation is to produce the ethanol. A public awareness campaign on the benefits of biofuels is also included in the considerations. In 2007, approximately 1.8 million tonnes of bagasse were produced from the country’s sugar industry, 80% of which was used for industrial process, heating and the remainder for electricity generation.Wind EnergyWind speed measurements are continuing in the country, with preliminary results indicating a mean average wind speed of 4 m/s across the country, suggesting a moderate potential for wind energy use. Wind pumps have previously been used and are deemed to hold the greatest potential. Micro wind turbines of less than 100 kW also hold potential. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy is working in close collaboration with the National Meteorological Service, to determine whether there is any realistic potential for effective utilisation of solar and wind energy in the country, including long-term measurements on the Lubombo Plateau and a movable monitoring station for other areas of the country.Geothermal EnergyNo study has yet been conducted into the geothermal potential of Swaziland, although hot springs are known to exist in the country. 

Energy framework

The legal energy policy and planning framework in Swaziland is controlled solely by the government via the Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy. They support the position that investment in energy and industrial development in a sustainable manner can eradicate poverty in the country. The Ministry also takes the lead role in oil sector management.The Government has stated clearly that rural electrification will continue to be a priority and efforts in that regard shall be led by the State. Energy is widely seen as a driver to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main energy policy document is the National Energy Policy 2002, which is still in effect. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy is responsible for overall project planning under the policy, and co-ordinates with the National Development Strategy Unit to ensure the fullest benefit from its programs.The Electricity Act of 1963 was replaced in 2007 by both the new Electricity Act and the Swaziland Electricity Company Act. This created a regulatory authority for the electricity sector and the structural reformation of the national utility. The Electricity Act created the framework for independent power providers to enter the electricity sector, with licensing provided by the new regulatory authority; however uptake has been limited. 

Source
Static Source:
  • Eco Ltd

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Eco is a boutique management consultancy specialized in the design and formulation of climate change mitigation and adaptation projects. Operating since 2000, Eco has worked with a wide range of international clients such as the AfDB, IFC, World Bank, UNDP, UNIDO, EBRD, GIZ and the European Union.

    Eco has designed over 250 projects in 82 countries across Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia. We have assessed markets and designed financial, technology and other strategies and then formulated projects.

  • Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated (OECI) is a private sector organization established in 2011 with the mission to provide quality technical and policy advice on sustainable development. Okapi's work includes project design, management and evaluation, strategic planning, capacity development, resource mobilization, scientific and technical advisory services, technology transfer. Okapi's experience extends in climate-affected sectors such as agriculture, sustainable land and water management, coastal zone management, infrastructure and others.

  • Institute of Natural Resources NPC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Africa
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The INR is a non-profit organization that works towards the wise use of natural resources in pursuit of sustainability for the good of the environment and the society, through multidisciplinary applied research. The INR provides strategic and operational support to develop cutting edge solutions that support the resolution of natural resource challenges, in partnership with government, civil society, the private sector and other leading research organizations.

  • Sustainable Capital Advisors

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    SCA provides strategy consulting and financial advisory services to public and private sector organizations seeking to implement sustainable infrastructure projects. Our client engagements involve a diversity of technologies located in countries across the world. Our job is to assist clients "sift through the noise" and develop practical and replicable solutions based on the realities of the financial and energy markets. 

  • International Water Management Institute

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Sri Lanka
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    IWMI’s Mission is to provide evidence-based solutions to sustainably manage water and land resources for food security, people’s livelihoods and the environment. IWMI’s Vision is ‘a water-secure world’. IWMI targets water and land management challenges faced by poor communities in the developing countries, and through this contributes towards the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing poverty and hunger, and maintaining a sustainable environment. 

  • STENUM GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    STENUM has worked for UNIDO, UNEP and IFC in training their Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production Centers and supporting them in the implementation of various activities (education of national experts, consultancy of companies in waster reduction, water minimization, chemicals management and energy efficiency). STENUM has elaborated several manuals and training materials (UNIDO train the trainer toolkit, UNEP PRESME toolkit).

  • Ecofys a Navigant company

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Ecofys, a Navigant company, is an international energy and climate consultancy focused on sustainable energy for everyone. Founded in 1984, the company is a trusted advisor to governments, corporations, NGOs, and energy providers worldwide. The team delivers powerful results in the energy and climate transition sectors. Working across the entire energy value chain, Ecofys develops innovative solutions and strategies to support its clients in enabling the energy transition and working through the challenges of climate change.

  • Ecosoluzioni Snc

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Italy
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Research and consulting on policy & market uptake actions in sustainable energy, clean tech, agriculture, waste mngt. and environment. Since 2000, wide-ranging technical assistance experience in climate change adaptation & mitigation related services, including: tech. assessments, business coaching, feasibility analysis, policy/market analysis, policy planning, M & E, partnership facilitation, finance structuring, agro-energy value chains, natural resources management, technology transfer. 

  • Integra Government Services International LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Integra designs, implements, and evaluates international development activities, with a focus on creating opportunities for the poor, expanding access to public infrastructure, promoting social and ecological resilience and strengthening donor programs. Integra has a proven record of innovative approaches yielding lasting results. Integra is a partner of NASA in deploying state-of-the-art Earth Observation technology for REDD+ MRV, while working to build on-the-ground socio-ecological resilience. 

     

  • HEAT - Habitat, Energy Application & Technology

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    HEAT is a independent consulting company focussed on the development and implementation of projects for climate and ozone protection. HEAT has a focus on technology cooperation, policy advice for climate protection technologies, particular in the areas of energy efficiency, cooling and refrigeration, F-gases, inventories, roadmaps, carrying out technical and economic feasibility studies and capacity building measures such as training and certification. HEAT is also the Coordination Office of the NDE Germany.