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Official Name:
Republic of Singapore

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Mr. Sin Liang Cheah
+65 6430 0638

Energy profile

Singapore (2012)

Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Singapore has a single grid serving 99.9% of the population. Work has begun on construction of a submarine cable connecting the mainland to Pulau Tekong Island, which is currently relying on diesel generators. The transmission network in the country operates at 400 kV, with 230 kV lines connecting the Senoko power station with the southern, 400 kV part of the grid. Two 230 kV submarine cables connect the transmission system of Singapore Power Ltd. to the Malaysian national grid, at Senoko. Transmission capacity is 200 MW.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyThe greatest potential for renewable energy in Singapore comes from solar energy. Solar thermal energy for hot water has been implemented commercially in several hotels and large scale catering facilities. However, commercial photovoltaic technologies are still perceived as costly, with low energy yields, and Singapore has been involved in various research efforts envisaging increasing use of renewable energy sources in the future through new technological advances that may drive the cost of generation down. The National Research Foundation (NRF) produced a primer on the potential for photovoltaic use in the country in 2011, concluding that peak demand on average coincides with peak production potential from PV installations, and that the grid system of the country, with sufficient application of load balancing practices, and peak shaving of PV systems, is suitable for further PV uptake. Singapore further aims to have 35 MWt of solar thermal systems by 2012.The National Environment Agency (NEA) encourages private and public sector partners to explore and test-bed new technologies (for example solar energy, and fuel cells) through schemes such as the Innovation for Environmental Sustainability (IES) fund, which co-funds innovative environmental projects and the Environmental Test-bedding Initiative, which allows access to public infrastructure for test-bedding purposes. For instance, NEA, together with EDB and EMA (Energy Market Authority), facilitated the installation of a 14.5 kW p grid-connected PV system at the German European School in Singapore.Biomass energyEfficient uses of municipal solid wastes have potential for use in large-scale power generation. Wood and horticultural wastes have also been proposed as potential feedstocks for biomass power generation. In addition, energy recovery from municipal wastes via incinerators has been performed in the country since the 1970s. Several companies in the country have declared an interest in biomass power generation, although current utilisation is still at a demonstration project level. Two full-scale demonstration projects of 1.5 MW are currently operational, utilising woody biomass.Wind energyAverage wind speeds in the country are 2-3 m/s, indicating a sub-optimal potential for the utilisation of wind energy. However, the potential is being investigated by several companies, notably Cygnus Power, a company that designs and manufactures vertical wind turbines, specifically for low-wind conditions. The company is currently piloting two 1 kW units in urbanised areas. Pilot projects are currently being constructed in suitable areas in the country. The potential for the use of wind kinetic energy as a power recovery mechanism, for example on cooling towers and ventilation systems, is also being investigated.HydropowerThere is limited potential for hydro-electric power generation in Singapore, mostly due to the unfavourable geographic conditions in the country.Geothermal energyThe country has 3 suitable hot springs for electricity generation, with an average temperature of 70 degrees Celsius. A theoretical output of 50 MW is not out of the range of the resource, according to studies. The country’s geothermal resource is particularly characterised by very high heat flow, indicating a significant potential for geothermal energy uptake.

Energy framework

The inter-agency Energy Policy Group, chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Trade and Industry, has developed an energy policy framework to maintain a balance between economic competitiveness, energy security and environmental sustainability. To meet its energy policy objectives, Singapore is focusing on five key strategies:-          Strategy 1: Promote competitive markets to keep energy affordable and ensure economic competitiveness. Correction of any market failures will be made by using market-based instruments or imposing standards and regulations. The private sector will be encouraged to innovate and achieve energy security, and environmental outcomes that Singapore is seeking.-          Strategy 2: Diversify energy supplies to protect against supply disruptions, price increases and other threats. In competitive markets, companies will have incentives to diversify and reduce commercial risks. The government’s role is to create an open and flexible framework that allows diversification to take place.-          Strategy 3: Improve energy efficiency to achieve all the objectives of the energy policy, whilst reducing business costs, pollution and CO2 equivalent emissions. The government has set up the Energy Efficiency Programme Office (E2PO) and developed an energy efficiency plan called Energy Efficient Singapore (E2Singapore). Measures included under the E2Singapore program include measures in all sectors of the economy, from improved building codes to minimum appliance performance standards and labelling, to ESCO establishment and accreditation, and awareness-raising/public capacity building projects.-          Strategy 4: Build the energy industry, and invest in energy R&D, to turn energy challenges into opportunities, and to meet rising global and regional demand for energy. Singapore will increase its refining capacity, consolidating its status as Asia’s premier oil hub, and expand its energy trading products to include liquefied natural gas (LNG), biofuels, and carbon emissions credits. Singapore will pursue clean and renewable energy, including solar energy, biofuels, and fuel cells.-          Strategy 5: Step up international cooperation to further the economy’s energy interests, particularly to enhance energy security. Singapore continues to be actively involved in forums, including the Association of South-east Asian Nations, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the East Asia Summit. Singapore also participates in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.Three key documents have been issued by the Government, promulgating the energy policy and strategy of the country: the 2007 National Energy Policy Report, which deals with consumption issues in the power and transport sectors, as well as efficiency; the 2008 National Climate Change Strategy, dealing with GHG emissions reduction, mitigation efforts and capacity-building for climate change, and the 2009 Sustainable Development Blueprint, which deals with efficient economic growth and social development strategies.

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