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Sweden

Official Name:
Kingdom of Sweden

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Ms. Kajsa Paludan
Position:
Policy Advisor, Swedish Energy Agency
Phone:
+46 0 73 600 21 83
Emails:
Kajsa.paludan@energimyndigheten.se

Energy profile

Sweden (2013)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The Swedish electricity network consists of 545,000 kilometres of power cables, of which 329,500 km are underground cables and 215,500 km overhead lines.

Renewable energy potential

SolarThe Swedish solar-cell market is still very limited, but since 2005 has begun to grow with the aid of government funding. Total installed capacity in 2011 was approximately 14 MW. During 2013–2016, the Swedish Energy Agency will invest SEK 123 million in research into solar cells, thermal solar power and solar fuels with a view to boosting the use of solar energy in the Swedish energy system.Wind EnergyAlthough nuclear and hydropower supply most of the electricity in Sweden, over the past several years, these other two sources are on the decline or remain flat, while wind power is increasing at a very high rate. For instance, the vast majority of wind turbines in Sweden have been built in the last 10 years, with wind power generation increasing by 78% from just 2008 to 2010. 208 new wind power turbines were installed with a total capacity of 574 MW in 2010 alone. The average capacity of wind turbines in Sweden is 1.9 MW.  Wind power currently accounts for about 2.4% of electricity use in Sweden. Although most of Sweden’s wind turbines are located in the southern portion of the country, which is the most densely populated, most municipalities now have wind turbines.BiofuelsThe most important domestic renewable source of energy is biofuels, i.e. fuels from the plant kingdom. These are mainly obtained from forest or farmland, although organic wastes from households and industry also make up an important share. In their various forms, biofuels can be used to produce electricity and heat, or as vehicle fuels.BiogasBiogas production is today approximately 1.4 TWh. According to the “Proposal for a multisectoral biogas strategy”, profitability is greatest for sewage sludge and restaurant and food waste the largest remaining potential exists for food waste. It is possible to enhance the collection of food waste and achieve the goal of biological treatment. Such an increased collection provides opportunities to increase the amount of food waste that is digested. However, the amount of attractive substrate is limited and corresponds to approximately 2.5 TWh. The study estimates that virtually all of the existing potential of the substrate in urban areas can be exploited at reasonable costs.HydroIn 2010 Sweden generated 67 000 GWh of electricity from hydropower, making it the biggest hydropower producer in the European Union and the tenth biggest worldwide. Sweden’s hydropower industry is mature, with a high proportion of ageing dams and stations. Hydropower production in Sweden is in most cases regulated by concessions – which are equivalent to licences for hydropower operators to use water resources – that have been granted in a court of law.GeothermalGeothermal energy is heat that is obtained from the Earth’s interior, deriving from the radioactive decay of certain heavier elements. In the bedrock beneath Sweden, the temperature rises by 10–30°C for every 1 km increase in depth (the ‘geothermal gradient’). In volcanically active regions, the temperature increase can be much greater than that. In Sweden, the best potential for geothermal energy is considered to exist in areas where there are large bodies of groundwater at considerable depths (2–3 km), i.e. areas with thick layers of sedimentary bedrock or fault zones such as the Lake Vättern graben. Areas where meteorites have given rise to fractured bedrock at great depths are also judged to be of interest, including the Siljan Ring, the Dellen lakes and Björkö on Lake Mälaren.Sweden’s largest commercial geothermal plant at present is in Lund. Drawing water at 20°C from sedimentary strata at a depth of some 700 m, the plant meets 30% of the city’s district heating needs (i.e. 250 GWh). The heat contained in the water is heat-exchanged to achieve the required temperature.

Energy framework

In 2009, the Swedish Parliament passed a comprehensive energy and climate change policy and plan. Their stated goal is to be free of fossil fuels by mid-century. Their stated reasons for pursuing this goal include: to contribute to slowing down climate change; to provide sustainable, stable, and affordable energy sources for Sweden; and to improve the long-term economic outlook for Sweden.Sweden’s plan recognizes that renewable energy and economic development are intertwined: “the world faces several interdependent challenges. The climate crisis has coincided with an economic downturn, and the way out of both these crises is an economy which accommodates the environment – an eco-efficient economy.” Like Denmark, there is a strong emphasis on energy independence (with renewable energy) not only being healthier but also creating energy jobs within their boundaries.Sweden has a comprehensive energy planning process with national targets for renewable energy and a green certificate system, both of which wind power is a part of. Each municipality is also required to create its own energy plan, which includes strategies for meeting the national targets for renewable energy.Sweden’s national energy plan sets the following goals:The proportion of energy supplied by renewable sources is to be at least 50% of the country’s energy use by 2020;Vehicles in Sweden are to be independent of fossil fuels by 2030 (which includes being fuelled by wind power); andThere will be no net emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by 2050.In 2009, Sweden approved a plan for wind power of 30 TWh by 2020, of which 20 TWh is to be produced onshore and 10 TWh offshore. Currently, 71 out of 1,655 wind turbines are offshore, and this represents 163 MW.Sweden has a market-based green certificate system that supports producers of renewable electricity, including wind power. Utilities must purchase these certificates in order to meet their required percentage of renewable energy. Market prices are then set by the supply and demand for these certificates.Action plan for renewable energyAs part of the integrated climate and energy policy, Sweden set in motion an action plan for renewable energies. This included a higher ambition for the electricity certificate system with an increase of 25 TWh by 2020 compared to 2002, when the system started. Sweden also put forward a national planning framework for wind power of 30 TWh by 2020 (20 TWh onshore, 10 TWh offshore) to provide orientation to municipal spatial planning proceduresSweden promotes efficient fuel use and the use of renewable energy sources in passenger cars with flexible fuel vehicles and efficient technologies, including electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, and the use of biogas, ethanol, hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and biodiesel through a number of tax incentives and blending.  In Sweden, the fulfilment of the sustainable requirements, as authorised by the Swedish Energy Agency, is a condition for obtaining tax exemptions. Under the EU Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC, only biofuels that fulfil the sustainability criteria may be taken into account for the fulfilment of targets or be entitled to state aid.Action plan for energy efficiencyUnder the integrated climate and energy policy bill, Sweden adopted comprehensive five-year energy efficiency programme for 2010-2014 with a total of SEK 1350 million (EUR156.23 million) or SEK 270 million (EUR 31.25 million) per year.  The activities under this programmer aim to strengthen the regional and local climate and energy initiatives, to support green procurement by the public sector to encourage small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to manage and audit their energy consumption, and to procure energy-efficient technology.  In addition, Sweden continues the Programme for Energy Efficiency in Energy-Intensive Industry (PFE).  Overall funding from the State budget in the area of energy efficiency is around SEK 530 million (EUR 61.44 million) per year.

Source
Static Source:
  • Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated (OECI) is a private sector organization established in 2011 with the mission to provide quality technical and policy advice on sustainable development. Okapi's work includes project design, management and evaluation, strategic planning, capacity development, resource mobilization, scientific and technical advisory services, technology transfer. Okapi's experience extends in climate-affected sectors such as agriculture, sustainable land and water management, coastal zone management, infrastructure and others.

  • STENUM GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    STENUM has worked for UNIDO, UNEP and IFC in training their Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production Centers and supporting them in the implementation of various activities (education of national experts, consultancy of companies in waster reduction, water minimization, chemicals management and energy efficiency). STENUM has elaborated several manuals and training materials (UNIDO train the trainer toolkit, UNEP PRESME toolkit).

  • Ecofys a Navigant company

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Ecofys, a Navigant company, is an international energy and climate consultancy focused on sustainable energy for everyone. Founded in 1984, the company is a trusted advisor to governments, corporations, NGOs, and energy providers worldwide. The team delivers powerful results in the energy and climate transition sectors. Working across the entire energy value chain, Ecofys develops innovative solutions and strategies to support its clients in enabling the energy transition and working through the challenges of climate change.

  • Ecosoluzioni Snc

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Italy
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Research and consulting on policy & market uptake actions in sustainable energy, clean tech, agriculture, waste mngt. and environment. Since 2000, wide-ranging technical assistance experience in climate change adaptation & mitigation related services, including: tech. assessments, business coaching, feasibility analysis, policy/market analysis, policy planning, M & E, partnership facilitation, finance structuring, agro-energy value chains, natural resources management, technology transfer. 

  • Integra Government Services International LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Integra designs, implements, and evaluates international development activities, with a focus on creating opportunities for the poor, expanding access to public infrastructure, promoting social and ecological resilience and strengthening donor programs. Integra has a proven record of innovative approaches yielding lasting results. Integra is a partner of NASA in deploying state-of-the-art Earth Observation technology for REDD+ MRV, while working to build on-the-ground socio-ecological resilience. 

     

  • Solvatten

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Sweden
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Solvatten provides combined portable water treatment and solar water heater system that has been designed for use at the household level in the developing world. It is made of durable plastic materials and requires no batteries, chemicals or spare parts and treats water harnessing the power of the sun. The unit has an average lifespan of 7-10 years. Lasting a childhood, Solvatten tackles health, environment, and savings using green energy. 

  • HEAT - Habitat, Energy Application & Technology

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    HEAT is a independent consulting company focussed on the development and implementation of projects for climate and ozone protection. HEAT has a focus on technology cooperation, policy advice for climate protection technologies, particular in the areas of energy efficiency, cooling and refrigeration, F-gases, inventories, roadmaps, carrying out technical and economic feasibility studies and capacity building measures such as training and certification. HEAT is also the Coordination Office of the NDE Germany.

  • World Coal Association

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    World Coal Association is the global industry association formed of major international coal producers and stakeholders. The WCA works to demonstrate and gain acceptance for the role coal plays in achieving a sustainable and lower carbon energy future. World coal organization's regular policy analysis, workshops, media updates and strategic research provide access to  the highest level of information on the global coal industry and its role in energy, climate and sustainable development issues. 

     

  • Urban Poor, Video narrated by Angélique Kidjo, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    Although urban centers are often ill-prepared to meet the basic needs of rapidly expanding populations, the urban poor are incredibly resourceful people, with their own networks and the proven capacity to save and invest in the betterment of their communities. Climate change can stimulate action that improves and transforms the most vulnerable urban communities.

  • Initial Study of Lifestyles, Consumption Patterns: Do Women Leave a Smaller Ecological Footprint Than Men?

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    What links are there between gender, consumption and sustainable lifestyles? Are the 'lifestyles' and consumption patterns of Swedish women (and those internationally) a function of the greater responsibility they take for unpaid domestic and reproductive work? This paper argues that a model of welfare in which gender equality is given greater attention would leave a smaller ecological footprint than the present one. It would also provide better access to goods and services adapted to the needs of both women and men, children and the elderly.