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Sudan

Official Name:
Republic of the Sudan

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Ms. Huyam Ahmed Abdalla
Position:
Department of Climate Change
Emails:
menrpd2017@gmail.com, hoyamahmed66@gmail.com

Energy profile

Sudan (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The national electrification rate in 2009 stood at 35.9%. Approximately 27.1 million people lack access to electricity in the country. Urban electrification in 2009 stood at roughly 52%, with rural electrification at 28%. The National Electricity Corporation, the national electricity utility, transmits electricity through two interconnected electrical grids, the Blue Nile Grid and the Western Grid, which cover only a small portion of the country. Regions not covered by the grid often rely on small diesel-fired generators for power. Transmission in the country operates at 300 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV, and distribution networks operate at 33 kV, 11 kV and 415 V.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyAverage solar insolation in the country is roughly 6.1 kWh/m2/day, indicating a high potential for  solar energy use. Total potentials over the course of a year have been estimated at 10.1 GJ/m2. A recent Global Environmental Facility (GEF), UNDP-funded project, utilised PV to electrify 13 rural and peri-urban communities, with some 45,000 households in the country now using PV systems. Wind energyAverage Wind speeds are estimated at 3-6 m/s; higher speeds have been recorded along the Red Sea coast. Average wind density in Sudan is estimated at 400 W/m2. Wind energy in Sudan is currently used for pumping water from both deep and shallow wells to provide drinking water and irrigation through the use of wind pumps. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed in 2010 with the Dubai-based Omene Energy for the construction of 500 MW of wind power capacity along the Red Sea coast in Sudan, in blocks of 100 MW, to be operated under an IPP structure. Biomass energyThere is a vibrant co-generation industry in Sudan, with installed capacity estimated at 55.5 MW in sugar factories, mainly for own use. There are plans to further expand co-generation in sugar production with more advanced plant equipment. In addition, plans are currently being developed to use an agricultural pest, the Mesquite shrub, for household energy production. An estimated 41.4 million hectares of forest resources are present in Sudan, with an allowable cut of approximately 15.1 million cubic metres. In addition, significant potential exists for the utilisation of agricultural residues, particularly crop residues and animal waste. Also, the government plans to add significant bioethanol and biodiesel production capacity in the coming years, in the region of 60 million litres/year and 50 million litres/year respectively. Geothermal energyGeothermal potential is estimated at 400 MW of power generation capacity. Potential geothermal fields have been identified near the Jabel Marra volcano, the Tagbo and Meidob hills, the Bayud volcanic field and the Red Sea coast. Hot spring temperatures in the Red Sea region range from 56ºC to 85 ºC. Two sites of particular interest in the region are the Suakin-1 and Bashayer-1A wells, which both have temperature gradients of over 70ºC. The country is currently collaborating with KenGen, the Kenyan national utility, to further build capacity and assess potentials in the region. HydropowerTotal potential for hydropower in the country is estimated at 4,860 MW, with an annual production of 24,132 GWh. Small-hydro also offers a significant potential, with more than 200 suitable sites for in-stream turbines existing. Potential small-hydro capacity in 2009 was estimated at 58.68 MW. Recent capacity additions have included the 1,250 MW Merowe dam, commissioned in 2009.

Energy framework

National Strategic Plan for SudanThe National Strategic Plan for Sudan – the first since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) – provides a framework for the country’s peace and development efforts between 2007 and 2011. It gives priority to the construction of electricity distribution networks and rural electrification projects to promote sustainable economic development, as well as capacity building within institutions. The Sudan Renewable Energy Master Plan was drafted in 2005 in an effort to promote the use of renewable energy sources, including priority projects such as PV installations and biomass co-generation, so as to avoid technological dependence on an oil-based market in energy sector development. Funding allocations for the program total approximately US$ 9.1 million, half-funded by bilateral/multilateral donors through grants or soft loans. Of this, US$ 4.25 million is allocated for the promotion of solar PV and SWH in the short term, with a further US$ 1.05 million for wind pumping. The medium-term plan to 2015 is estimated to require US$ 15 million of funding and targets a wide range of renewable options, including small-hydro power for rural mini-grids, development of the country’s geothermal resources, and modern and improved bio-energy options. Government priorities in the renewables sector include:Reducing unsustainable biomass use,Increasing wind energy use for rural on- and off-grid electrification, as well as in water pumping and agriculture, Increasing the dissemination of community-scale PV projects,Assessment of the geothermal and small-hydro potentials of the country, and the identification of priority projects.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.

  • Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Switzerland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte is an establishment of reflection, research and practice of industrial ecology. The Institute has an engineering division and an expertise cluster, which enables the Institute to identify new technologies linked to industrial ecology and to advise through a specific methodology adapted to local contexts. The project managers work on the practical execution of mandates and on the implementation of the industrial ecology with a particular attention to Switzerland and developing countries.