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Sudan

Official Name:
Republic of the Sudan

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Ms. Huyam Ahmed Abdalla
Position:
Department of Climate Change
Emails:
menrpd2017@gmail.com, hoyamahmed66@gmail.com

Energy profile

Sudan (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The national electrification rate in 2009 stood at 35.9%. Approximately 27.1 million people lack access to electricity in the country. Urban electrification in 2009 stood at roughly 52%, with rural electrification at 28%. The National Electricity Corporation, the national electricity utility, transmits electricity through two interconnected electrical grids, the Blue Nile Grid and the Western Grid, which cover only a small portion of the country. Regions not covered by the grid often rely on small diesel-fired generators for power. Transmission in the country operates at 300 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV, and distribution networks operate at 33 kV, 11 kV and 415 V.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyAverage solar insolation in the country is roughly 6.1 kWh/m2/day, indicating a high potential for  solar energy use. Total potentials over the course of a year have been estimated at 10.1 GJ/m2. A recent Global Environmental Facility (GEF), UNDP-funded project, utilised PV to electrify 13 rural and peri-urban communities, with some 45,000 households in the country now using PV systems. Wind energyAverage Wind speeds are estimated at 3-6 m/s; higher speeds have been recorded along the Red Sea coast. Average wind density in Sudan is estimated at 400 W/m2. Wind energy in Sudan is currently used for pumping water from both deep and shallow wells to provide drinking water and irrigation through the use of wind pumps. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed in 2010 with the Dubai-based Omene Energy for the construction of 500 MW of wind power capacity along the Red Sea coast in Sudan, in blocks of 100 MW, to be operated under an IPP structure. Biomass energyThere is a vibrant co-generation industry in Sudan, with installed capacity estimated at 55.5 MW in sugar factories, mainly for own use. There are plans to further expand co-generation in sugar production with more advanced plant equipment. In addition, plans are currently being developed to use an agricultural pest, the Mesquite shrub, for household energy production. An estimated 41.4 million hectares of forest resources are present in Sudan, with an allowable cut of approximately 15.1 million cubic metres. In addition, significant potential exists for the utilisation of agricultural residues, particularly crop residues and animal waste. Also, the government plans to add significant bioethanol and biodiesel production capacity in the coming years, in the region of 60 million litres/year and 50 million litres/year respectively. Geothermal energyGeothermal potential is estimated at 400 MW of power generation capacity. Potential geothermal fields have been identified near the Jabel Marra volcano, the Tagbo and Meidob hills, the Bayud volcanic field and the Red Sea coast. Hot spring temperatures in the Red Sea region range from 56ºC to 85 ºC. Two sites of particular interest in the region are the Suakin-1 and Bashayer-1A wells, which both have temperature gradients of over 70ºC. The country is currently collaborating with KenGen, the Kenyan national utility, to further build capacity and assess potentials in the region. HydropowerTotal potential for hydropower in the country is estimated at 4,860 MW, with an annual production of 24,132 GWh. Small-hydro also offers a significant potential, with more than 200 suitable sites for in-stream turbines existing. Potential small-hydro capacity in 2009 was estimated at 58.68 MW. Recent capacity additions have included the 1,250 MW Merowe dam, commissioned in 2009.

Energy framework

National Strategic Plan for SudanThe National Strategic Plan for Sudan – the first since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) – provides a framework for the country’s peace and development efforts between 2007 and 2011. It gives priority to the construction of electricity distribution networks and rural electrification projects to promote sustainable economic development, as well as capacity building within institutions. The Sudan Renewable Energy Master Plan was drafted in 2005 in an effort to promote the use of renewable energy sources, including priority projects such as PV installations and biomass co-generation, so as to avoid technological dependence on an oil-based market in energy sector development. Funding allocations for the program total approximately US$ 9.1 million, half-funded by bilateral/multilateral donors through grants or soft loans. Of this, US$ 4.25 million is allocated for the promotion of solar PV and SWH in the short term, with a further US$ 1.05 million for wind pumping. The medium-term plan to 2015 is estimated to require US$ 15 million of funding and targets a wide range of renewable options, including small-hydro power for rural mini-grids, development of the country’s geothermal resources, and modern and improved bio-energy options. Government priorities in the renewables sector include:Reducing unsustainable biomass use,Increasing wind energy use for rural on- and off-grid electrification, as well as in water pumping and agriculture, Increasing the dissemination of community-scale PV projects,Assessment of the geothermal and small-hydro potentials of the country, and the identification of priority projects.

Source
Static Source:
  • Guidelines for Energy Efficiency in the Tourism Sector: Strategy, Design, Systems, and Operations Approach

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    The main goal of the working paper is to provide insights into the opportunities and costs of renewable energy development pathways. The scenarios are not intended to be forecasts of what will happen but rather to allow the complex interaction of markets, costs and other core drivers to be analysed in order to identify key trends, development opportunities and critical technologies or assumptions. The paper provides early insights for the power sector in Africa.

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    This web-based database provides detailed project output documents from Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) projects. The database contains output documents from specific types of energy access, energy efficiency, and renewable energy programmes. These documents can be searched based for certain technologies or particular countries. Output documents are in English, Spanish, Chinese, French, and Portuguese. REEEP projects aim to improve access to clean and reliable energy in developing countries.

  • Policy and Regulatory Overviews (Website)

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    This paper discusses mechanical power, the off-grid use of motors and fuels, and its critical role in meeting rural energy needs in developing nations. This paper assesses the best practices and financing options that would enhance the role of mechanical power by making it more efficient and better able to enhance the productivity of rural laborers in developing nations. Deployment programs, grants, and other financial incentives are considered and assessed in a series of case studies.