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Russian Federation

Official Name:
Russian Federation

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Sergei Vasin
Phone:
+7 499 237 65 34
Emails:
vasin-sg@mon.gov.ru

Energy profile

Russia (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

With some 10 million people not connected to the electricity grid, Russia also has huge potential markets for off-grid electricity systems based on renewable energy. In many isolated settlements, renewables can be the most economic, and perhaps even the only way to provide electricity and heat to consumers.

Renewable energy potential

The size of the territory of the Russian Federation holds a strong potential for the development of renewable energy sources, although it should be noted that the utilization of intermittent resources like wind energy, which requires long transmission lines if the plants are located in remote locations, might pose some economical and technical challenges.HydroThe potential for hydropower is also quite large, as 9% of the world’s hydro resources are concentrated on the territory of the Russian Federation. Hydropower currently provides 21% of total electricity generation capacity and there is still a large potential for small to medium hydro power projects.WindThe Russian Federation has excellent potential for wind power generation. An attempt to utilize just 25% of its total potential would yield some 175,000 MW of power. The highest wind energy potential is concentrated along seacoasts, in the vast territories of the steppes, and in the mountains.BiomassThe overall technical potential of biomass is estimated at 35 million toe, which, if converted to electrical power, could generate nearly 15,000 MWe. This includes sewage sludge, cattle manure and forestry and wood waste.GeothermalGeothermal potential is also high, with theoretical resource estimates of high temperature (>90 C) steam, water, and brine at about 3,000 MWth. The most promising geothermal locations have been identified in the North Caucasus, Western Siberia, Lake Baikal, and in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands.SolarSolar potential is reasonable despite the country’s location in the northern latitudes. The highest solar potentials are located in the North Caucasus, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea areas, and southern parts of Siberia and the Far East.  It has been estimated that the technical potential and the economic potential for solar energy are 2.3 trillion tce, 2 300 million tce and 12.5 million tce, respectively.An estimate of the economic potential of primary RES from the PEEREA Report on Russian Federation in 2007 gives an overall figure of 181 Mtoe/year. This would represent around 20 per cent of the domestic energy consumption, much higher than the current 1%.

Energy framework

Energy Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030The main policy document in the energy sector is the Energy Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030, which was approved in November 2009 by the Government and replaced the previous Energy Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020.The Energy Strategy up to 2020 outlined several main priorities: an increase in energy efficiency, reducing impact on the environment, sustainable development, energy development, and technological development, as well as improved effectiveness and competitiveness. The main targets set by the Energy Strategy up to 2020 can be summarized as follows:Reduction of the specific energy intensity of GDP with the correspondent growth of energy effectiveness of economy;Moderate growth of expenses for fuel and energy supply of the population in 2001-2020;Increase of the annual income from the fuel and energy complex activity;Expected growth of energy exports of 45-64 per cent by 2020.The strategy outlines three phases for the process of the national Fuel Energy Complex (FEC) transformation. In order to make the FEC an additional engine for the recovery of the domestic economy, it is foreseen to reorganize it during the first stage (2013 to 2015). In the second phase (2016 to 2020/2022), several cutting-edge, highly efficient innovations and technologies are to be introduced; greenfields are to become operational and significantly expand the sector’s production and export capacity. In the period of 2021/2023 to 2030, considerably improved energy efficiency coupled with enhanced use of non-fuel energy sources (nuclear, solar, wind, etc.) are expected to boost the economy.The overall goals of the strategy can be summarized as follows: energy security, energy efficiency of the domestic economy, economic efficiency of the national Fuel Energy Complex and ecological security of the national fuel energy complex.The legal framework for energy efficiency is based on the Law on Energy Saving and on Increasing Energy Efficiency and on Introduction of Changes in Selected Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation (Federal Law No. 261, signed by the President on 23 November 2009) and on various Codes and Federal Laws, such as the Civil Code, the Tax Code, the Forestry Code, the Customs Code, the Urban Development Code and the Laws on Electricity Sector and on Municipal Housing Sector.The new law replaces the previous Law on Energy Efficiency (Federal Law No. 28), which was in force since 1996 and which was distinguished by its declarative nature and absence of real measures allowing real development of energy saving technologies in the Russian Federation. Furthermore, it provides the regulatory framework for implementation of the decree of the President of the Russian Federation “On Measures to Increase the Energy and Environmental Efficiency of the Russian Economy”, which was adopted in 2008, thus marking the first step in a comprehensive revision of the regulation on EE of the Russian Federation The presidential decree envisages energy intensity target reduction of 40% by 2020.There is no specific law on RES. However, the Federal Law No. 35 “On the Electric Power Industry” as amended by Federal Law No. 250 “On Amendments of Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation”, related to reformation of the United Energy System of Russia (ratified on November 2007), contains a number of measures to support generation of electricity from RES. First of all, it constitutes the set of energy sources considered as renewables.Furthermore, the law obliges the government to adopt long-term state policies in the area of RES by fixing the share of RES in production and consumption by periods and years. The law envisages federal budget subsidies, including coverage for grid connection costs for RES producers with a capacity below 25 MW. It obliges grid companies to purchase preferentially renewable energy for the compensation of their transmission losses. Also, the law introduced a premium to the wholesale market price for RE.In 2009, a Government Decree set a new target for RE, to reach 4.5% by 2020 from its current 0.5%.  A modest but positively oriented target demonstrates growing attention towards renewable energy.White Sea EnergySome of the Russian Federation regions have established or are establishing regional EE programmes. One example of such a regional initiative is the territorial project of the region of Archangelsk, called White Sea Energy. Jointly with the Russian energy company Roskommunenergo, the administration of the Archangelsk region established a public-private partnership programme. The participating financing institutions are the Russian banks Mosuralbank and Sberbank, as well as the Czech Export Bank and the Foreign Trade Bank of the Russian Federation. The aim of the project is the comprehensive optimization and development of the power supply of the regional enterprises and the housing sector. Furthermore, it is envisaged to implement efficient, high-tech and ecological projects in the electricity, industry, and municipal services sector in the Archangelsk region. The third project task comprises the improved competitiveness of the enterprises in Archangelsk through the optimization of the energy costs. The programme envisages investments of USD 1 billion.Russia Renewable Energy Program (RREP)Supported by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC), RREP was launched in December 2010 to create a platform that can support at least the beginnings of a significant share for renewables in Russia. Its work will see the programme team co-operating with the Russian Energy Agency, RusHydro and other key players to develop favourable policies and instruments. It will work with the private sector to encourage project development and generally raise the profile of renewables, especially in regions where it could have a significant early impact. RREP hopes to be the catalyst for the addition 205 MW of RE over the five years of the programme. The IFC says it will have around USD 150 million to invest when the time is right.Premium and certificates schemeRussian authorities have realized that the national renewable energy objectives cannot be achieved without additional financial support. To enable the financial viability of RE installations, they have created a support scheme. The central element of this scheme consists of a system of ‘certificates’ and ‘premiums’ that provide additional revenues to the operators of renewable energy installations. Moreover, the authorities have established a scheme for the compensation of the network connection costs of renewable energy installations with an installed capacity not exceeding 25MW.  In addition, the Federal Grid Company is obliged to cover the electricity losses on the transmission grid in priority with purchases at regulated prices of electricity produced from renewable energy sources.  Furthermore, renewable energy installations in Russia could, at least until 2012, benefit from support under the Joint Implementation (JI) mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. The national authorities have developed the required domestic legal framework for the approval of such projects and the issuance of Emission Reduction Units (ERUs).Renewable energy installations that are connected to and inject electricity in the network of EU Member States (ie the network supervised by the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E)) could also benefit from support under the so-called ‘joint projects’ mechanism created by the new Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from RES.

Source
Static Source:
  • Eco Ltd

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Eco is a boutique management consultancy specialized in the design and formulation of climate change mitigation and adaptation projects. Operating since 2000, Eco has worked with a wide range of international clients such as the AfDB, IFC, World Bank, UNDP, UNIDO, EBRD, GIZ and the European Union.

    Eco has designed over 250 projects in 82 countries across Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia. We have assessed markets and designed financial, technology and other strategies and then formulated projects.

  • Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated (OECI) is a private sector organization established in 2011 with the mission to provide quality technical and policy advice on sustainable development. Okapi's work includes project design, management and evaluation, strategic planning, capacity development, resource mobilization, scientific and technical advisory services, technology transfer. Okapi's experience extends in climate-affected sectors such as agriculture, sustainable land and water management, coastal zone management, infrastructure and others.

  • STENUM GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    STENUM has worked for UNIDO, UNEP and IFC in training their Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production Centers and supporting them in the implementation of various activities (education of national experts, consultancy of companies in waster reduction, water minimization, chemicals management and energy efficiency). STENUM has elaborated several manuals and training materials (UNIDO train the trainer toolkit, UNEP PRESME toolkit).

  • Ecofys a Navigant company

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Ecofys, a Navigant company, is an international energy and climate consultancy focused on sustainable energy for everyone. Founded in 1984, the company is a trusted advisor to governments, corporations, NGOs, and energy providers worldwide. The team delivers powerful results in the energy and climate transition sectors. Working across the entire energy value chain, Ecofys develops innovative solutions and strategies to support its clients in enabling the energy transition and working through the challenges of climate change.

  • Ecosoluzioni Snc

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Italy
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Research and consulting on policy & market uptake actions in sustainable energy, clean tech, agriculture, waste mngt. and environment. Since 2000, wide-ranging technical assistance experience in climate change adaptation & mitigation related services, including: tech. assessments, business coaching, feasibility analysis, policy/market analysis, policy planning, M & E, partnership facilitation, finance structuring, agro-energy value chains, natural resources management, technology transfer. 

  • Integra Government Services International LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Integra designs, implements, and evaluates international development activities, with a focus on creating opportunities for the poor, expanding access to public infrastructure, promoting social and ecological resilience and strengthening donor programs. Integra has a proven record of innovative approaches yielding lasting results. Integra is a partner of NASA in deploying state-of-the-art Earth Observation technology for REDD+ MRV, while working to build on-the-ground socio-ecological resilience. 

     

  • HEAT - Habitat, Energy Application & Technology

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    HEAT is a independent consulting company focussed on the development and implementation of projects for climate and ozone protection. HEAT has a focus on technology cooperation, policy advice for climate protection technologies, particular in the areas of energy efficiency, cooling and refrigeration, F-gases, inventories, roadmaps, carrying out technical and economic feasibility studies and capacity building measures such as training and certification. HEAT is also the Coordination Office of the NDE Germany.

  • World Coal Association

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    World Coal Association is the global industry association formed of major international coal producers and stakeholders. The WCA works to demonstrate and gain acceptance for the role coal plays in achieving a sustainable and lower carbon energy future. World coal organization's regular policy analysis, workshops, media updates and strategic research provide access to  the highest level of information on the global coal industry and its role in energy, climate and sustainable development issues. 

     

  • Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Ireland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Environmental Research Institute (ERI) is a flagship Institute for Environmental, Marine and Energy research in Ireland. The ERI has over 300 researchers working in interdisciplinary and currently has 45 live research projects focused on climate mitigation, adaptation and understanding. Focus areas include energy modelling, marine renewables, biofuels, energy efficiency, climate adaptation platforms, modelling greenhouse gas fluxes, atmospheric chemistry and carbon liabilities.

  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Overview 2012

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Sustainable energy development can be achieved by employing highly effective government policies and by broadening energy cooperation between economies through bilateral, regional and multilateral schemes. In this context, sharing information on common energy challenges is essential. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Overview is an annual publication intended to promote information sharing. It contains energy demand and supply data as well as energy policy information for each of the 21 APEC economies.