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Romania

Official Name:
Romania

Energy profile

Romania (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The extent of connection to the electricity network is not 100% although it is close. Romania has an extensive interconnected power transmission and distribution network with an overall length of about 600,000 km. The national grid operates on 750 kV, 400 kV, and 220 kV for transmission and 20 kV, 10 kV, 6 kV, 1 kV and 0.4 kV for distribution.

Renewable energy potential

According to the EU Renewables Directive, Romania will have to source 24% of its final energy demand from renewable sources by 2020, up from 17.8% in 2005. For electricity production, this means that renewables have to account for 38% of Romania’s total power demand. Since hydro power alone will not meet this target, the contribution of other renewable energy sources is crucial.HydropowerAnalysis of the total small hydro potential in Romania shows the country has the capacity for  around 780 small hydroelectric plants (of below 10 MW/unit), with a total power of 2,150 MW, able to provide approximately 6 TWh per year. At the moment, small hydro plants in Romania account for a total capacity of 1,125 MW, but this capacity is not entirely functional, leaving the high potential of small-scale hydropower largely untapped.BioenergyRomania is covered 40% by agricultural land and 27% by forest. Biomass is only used for heating purposes, direct burning for cooking and hot water. District heating systems are the most immediate and low-cost application. About 95% of the biomass currently used is firewood. The south plain region is the most promising for the utilization of agricultural waste and the Carpathian mountains the most promising for the development of district heating plants from firewood and wood waste. There are no special incentives for the implementation of biomass projects.Wind energyRomania’s potential in wind energy is considered to be the highest in South Eastern Europe. It is estimated at around 14,000 MW installed capacity, generating around 23 TWh per year.  The Moldova and Dobrogea provinces (in the southeast of the country, near the Black Sea) were considered the most appropriate areas for wind farm developments. The southeast of Dobrogea was ranked second in terms of potential in Europe according to specialized studies. At the end of 2009, Romania had an installed wind capacity of just 14 MW. 2010 was an excellent year for Romania’s wind sector, with installed capacity increasing 33-fold to reach 462 MW. Wind power produced around 280 GWh in 2010, but given the fact that most of the new installed capacity became operational only towards the end the year, a much higher production can be expected in 2011.The Fantanele wind farm operated by Czech multinational CEZ started operations in August 2010, using 2.5 MW GE turbines. By the end of the year, 300 MW were operational, with another 37.5 MW to be added in 2011.  A 90 MW wind farm with 3 MW Vestas turbines and operated by EDP came online in November 2010, and was followed by a 30 MW Enel wind farm using 2 MW Gamesa turbines in December. The Monsson Alma 21.8 MW wind farm also became operational in 2010, as well as 6.2 MW from various smaller players. Solar energyCurrently there is no solar generation in Romania; however, the country has considerable potential.  In more than half of the country’s territory, solar radiation is between 1,100 – 1,300 KWh/m2/year, which offers a good opportunity for solar electricity generation.  The potential for solar power through the use of photovoltaic cells is about 1,200 GWh/year.Geothermal EnergyRegarding geothermal energy, Romania shows the third highest potential in Europe, with major potential locations in the Western Plain, South Plains (Bucharest region) and Southern Carpathian regions. Total potential reaches around 1.94 TWh per year. 

Energy framework

National Energy Sector Strategy (2007-2020)In 2007 the Romanian government approved a long term Energy Strategy, building up on the National Energy Strategy on Medium Term (see below).The government's strategy emphasizes:-  increasing energy efficiency- boosting renewable energy- diversifying import sources and transport routes- modernizing lines- protecting critical infrastructure.Law 220/2008 enacted by the Parliament in early November 2008 Parliament, transposing the provisions of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2001/77/EC) into national legislation and creating a comprehensive legal basis for the development of electricity generation from RES.As per this directive, Romania should produce 33% of its electricity form RES including large HPPs and 8.3% excluding those by the year 2010. The country’s binding target for the share of energy from RES in final energy consumption is 24% for 2020.In 2010, the Romanian Renewable Energy Law was fundamentally amended in favour of RE producers. It reiterated the previous renewable energy target of 8.3% (excluding large hydro) for total gross electricity produced in Romania by 2010, and also introduced a 20% target for 2020. However, the share reached for renewable electricity in 2010 was just 1.25%.The most important points of the amended law are:Wind power will receive two green certificates per MWh produced until 2017 and one certificate for the rest of the promotion scheme, which is set for 15 years. This encourages early deployment.The value of the green certificates is adjusted yearly, applying the inflation index of the EU-27 (approximately 2% per year) both for the cap and the floorThe 2020 quota of renewable electricity (excluding large hydro) increased from 16.8% to 20%The penalties for suppliers for each non-procured certificate increased from EUR 70 to EUR 110A monitoring principle was inserted in the law, but it is as yet unclear how this will be used by the regulator, and if it will be beneficial for the wind industry.In addition, the energy regulator has drafted secondary legislation, but this has not been adopted officially while the renewable energy law awaits approval from the European Commission. At the end of 2010, the Romanian authorities sent six pre-notifications to the Commission related to the approval of the law, and a positive decision is expected to be issued in April 2011 at the earliest. 

Source
Static Source:
  • Project Outputs Database (Website)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This web-based database provides detailed project output documents from Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) projects. The database contains output documents from specific types of energy access, energy efficiency, and renewable energy programmes. These documents can be searched based for certain technologies or particular countries. Output documents are in English, Spanish, Chinese, French, and Portuguese. REEEP projects aim to improve access to clean and reliable energy in developing countries.

  • Policy and Regulatory Overviews (Website)

    Type: 
    Publication

    reegle's policy and regulatory overviews provide country highlights for a variety of policies and regulations relating to energy, energy efficiency, fuels, standards and labeling, incentives such as feed-in tariffs for renewables, national targets, and other national strategies for low-carbon development.

  • Country Energy Profiles (Website)

    Type: 
    Publication

    This reegle website provides comprehensive energy profiles for all countries with information from reliable sources such as UN or the World Bank. Profile information includes national policies on energy-related issues, visualized statistics, renewable energy potentials maps, national projects programmes, and key stakeholders.

  • Photovoltaic Geographical Information System

    Type: 
    Publication
    Sectors:

    This tool provides a geographical inventory of solar energy resources and an assessment of the electricity generation from photovoltaic systems in Europe, Africa, and southwest Asia. The tools allows for analysis of the technical, environmental, and socio-economic factors of solar electricity generation. Users may access maps and posters generated using the tool, as well as technical publications and papers.

  • Transport Research Knowledge Centre (Website)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    The Transport Research Knowledge Centre (TRKC) provides an overview of transport research activities at the European and national level.

  • Renewable Energy Sector in the European Union: Its Employment and Export Potential

    Type: 
    Publication
    Renewable Energy Sector in the European Union: Its Employment and Export Potential
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This report was prepared for the European Commission (EC) to assess the state of renewable energy developments within the European Union (EU). The report contains an overview of the deployment of EU renewable energy policies and projects as well as an assessment of the socio-economic impacts of their deployment such as employment, manufacturing activity, and exports. Additionally, it reviews the renewable energy developments in EU "candidate countries" (as of 2002).

  • Renewable Energy Sector in the European Union: Its Employment and Export Potential

    Type: 
    Publication
    Renewable Energy Sector in the European Union: Its Employment and Export Potential
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This report was prepared for the European Commission to assess the state of renewable energy developments within the European Union (EU). The report contains an overview of the deployment of EU renewable energy policies and projects as well as an assessment of the socio-economic impacts of their deployment such as employment, manufacturing activity, and exports. Additionally, it reviews the renewable energy developments in EU candidate countries.

  • Fuel Switching and Climate and Energy Policies in the European Power Generation Sector: A Generalized Leontief Model

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This study analyzes the role and nature of price-induced fuel switching behaviour between fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) in the western European power sector. It also investigates the impact of a number of public policies on fuel choice in the energy sector during the last 20 years. The empirical results show evidence of notable short-run inter-fuel substitution between oil and gas, particularly in countries where fossil fuels are used extensively for both base and peak load purposes.

  • Robust Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs)? The Topography of Abatement by Fuelswitching in the European Power Sector

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This paper employs a simulation model of the European power sector in order to analyze the abatement response to a carbon dioxide (CO2) price through fuel switching. Abatement is shown to depend on the price of allowances, but, more importantly, on the load level of the system and the ratio between natural gas and coal prices. The interplay of these determinants vitiates any simple relation between a CO2 price and abatement and requires the development of more than two-dimensional graphics to illustrate these complex relationships.

  • Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction by Means of Fuelswitching in Electricity Generation: Addressing the Potentials

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This paper investigates the possibilities that exist for switching coal-fired plants to gas-fired plants, depending on load level. A fixed allowance cost and a variable natural gas price are assumed. The method to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials is first illustrated in a methodological case. Next, the GHG emission reduction potentials are addressed for several western European countries together with a relative positioning of their electricity generation. GHG emission reduction potentials are also compared with simulation results.