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Netherlands

Official Name:
Kingdom of the Netherlands

Energy profile

Netherlands (2013)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The Netherlands has a well-developed electricity grid with respect to security of supply and cross border interconnections. Per year about 110 TWh of electrical energy is supplied in the Netherlands to end users through (non) public grids. Of this amount about 18 TWh is imported from neighbouring countries.For a long time the Netherlands had only two interconnections with Belgium and three with Germany. However, TenneT has expanded this capacity to now include additional interconnections with the United Kingdom (via the 1,000 MW BritNed cable) and with Norway (via the 700 MW NorNed cable). Interconnection with Norway allows for better capacity utilisation because of the noncoincident peak demand periods of the two countries. Specifically, electricity consumption in Norway is relatively high at night time and so the Netherlands typically exports electricity to Norway during the night as it is cheaper and also allows Norway to save the water in its reservoirs for use during the day. In turn, Norway exports electricity to the Netherlands during the daytime peak hours, when electricity is expensive. Importantly, Dutch market parties are able to import renewable hydropower from Norway via the NorNed cable.

Renewable energy potential

Solar

Solar energy in the Netherlands represents only a small proportion of sustainable energy consumption (1%). On the other hand, the Netherlands has considerable knowhow, and is sixth in the world for solar energy patent applications and supply components of solar cells for the foreign markets. Important cost savings can be achieved by making solar cells thinner or by using different materials. An international distinguishing feature of Dutch solar thermal products is the drainback technology that is applied, which has benefits of maintenance-free use, and insensitivity to frost and overheating.

Wind Energy

Wind energy accounts for more than 30% of all sustainable energy in the Netherlands. Wind energy is Dutch government’s most effective means of achieving sustainable energy production. The Netherlands are ranked fourth highest in Europe in terms of wind power production and has considerable wind energy expertise. Initially, wind farms were placed onshore, but since 2006, they can be found offshore as well. Offshore wind parks are clearly not economically feasible without governmental support. Nevertheless, wind parks on land can be economically feasible. All the initiators of the Q7 Amalia offshore wind park stated that building at sea is twice as expensive as on land. The Princess Amalia offshore wind farm is the largest of its kind in the world outside the 12-mile limit, and is also built in the deepest water.

Onshore wind energy will continue to be one of the cheapest ways of generating renewable energy in the years ahead. This energy option has a potential of approximately 48 PJ by 2020 (2.3 percentage points), equivalent to the output of wind farms with a total capacity of around 6,000 MW.

Biomass

As biomass is envisaged to play a major role in fulfilling national targets concerning the reduction of CO2-emissions and the introduction of renewable energy sources, ambitious targets have been set. In the EOS-LT program, with respect to co-firing, 25% biomass co-firing (on energy basis) is foreseen for 2020, whereas in 2040 40% biomass co-firing should be realised. In the overall long-term vision of covering 30% of the total energy consumption of the Netherlands by biomass energy in 2040, and covering 20-45% of the feed-stock requirements of the chemical industry with biomass, large-scale import of biomass (either wood or grass-like) will be required. The Netherlands have a considerable domestic biomass potential. The domestic biomass potential, i.e. various waste streams adding up to approximately 100-120 PJ and theoretically another 50 PJ made by “energy farming”, might be converted through (de-central) small scale biomass plants. The domestic biomass potential, i.e. various waste streams adding up to approximately 100-120 PJ and theoretically another 50 PJ made by “energy farming”, might be converted through (de-central) small scale biomass plants.

Biogas

Biofuel niche development in the Netherlands seems to be characterized by a dual track approach. A small PVO/biodiesel niche emerged, but this is not very visible. In order to comply with the EU directive on biofuels, setting a target for a 2% biofuel mix in 2005 and a 5.75% mix in 2010, the Dutch government chose for obliging oil companies to distribute an amount of biofuel equal to 2% of the total amount of transport fuel distributed, starting in 2007. The plan is to increase the amount of biofuel distribution successively. Moreover, there are hardly any filling stations providing pure, or high blend, biofuels in the Netherlands. The second research driven track focuses on advanced fuels, but this has not led to any large-scale experimentation. Advanced fuels remain a promise.

Hydro

Despite its long interaction with water, the Netherlands has little potential for hydropower due to its flat topography. The Netherlands has a large resource of moving water in its major rivers but its limited hydraulic head because of little elevation change means that hydropower is a minor component of the country's renewable energy portfolio. A few small hydro plants exist but in total produce less than a tenth of a percent of the Netherlands' electricity.

Energy framework

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

The NREAP for the Netherlands was submitted in July 2010. The target according to Annex I of Directive 2009/28/EC is 14% for the year 2020 and the projected NREAP share in that year is 14.5%. In October 2012 a new coalition agreement was presented, in which the ambition for the Netherlands was increased to 16% (overall) renewable energy by the year 2020. According to the projection, the most important contribution in the year 2020 is expected from wind power (32.4 TWh or 2787 ktoe, 38% of all renewable energy). The second important contribution is expected from biomass (renewable heating and cooling) (1520 ktoe, 21% of all renewable energy). The third largest contribution is from biomass (renewable electricity) (16.6 TWh or 1431 ktoe, 19% of all renewable energy). Wind power contributes with 11.2 GW (32.4 TWh) in the year 2020 (onshore wind 6.0 GW and 13.4 TWh, offshore wind 5.2 GW and 19.0 TWh). For photovoltaic power the 2020 contribution is projected to be 0.7 GW (0.6 TWh). For solar thermal the 2020 contribution is projected to be 23 ktoe. The two most important biofuels are projected to contribute 552 ktoe (biodiesel) and 282 ktoe (bioethanol / bio-ETBE) by 2020. The renewable electricity production from solid biomass amounts to 12.0 TWh (1030 ktoe) and for biogas it is expected to be 4.7 TWh (401 ktoe). The consumption of renewable heat is expected to amount to 650 ktoe for solid biomass and 288 ktoe for biogas. A contribution of 582 ktoe is expected from bio-methane for grid feed-in by the year 2020.

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP)

The Netherlands has adopted a National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2008-2016 (NEEAP), which sets an energy  savings target of 51.2 TWh (or 4.4 Mtoe) by 2016 to be achieved in buildings, transport and small industries (excluding sectors under ETS). The second NEEAP, submitted in mid-2011, stated that the country can expect to exceed this target by 45%.Clean and Efficient ProgramThe Clean and Efficient Program, launched in 2007, aims to improve energy efficiency by 2% / year over the period 2011-2020 and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020 compared with 1990. The program uses different measures to achieve its objectives, including energy efficiency standards.

SDE+ premium feed-in scheme

In the Netherlands, the main support instrument for renewable energy is the SDE+ premium feed-in scheme. This support scheme promotes renewable energy sources used for electricity, renewable gas and heating purposes. It encompasses a system of phased admission with escalating base tariffs, which favours low cost RES options. Besides the premium scheme, investments in renewable energy technologies are supported via loans and various tax benefits. Moreover, net-metering applies to small installations. Access of electricity from renewable energy sources to the grid shall be granted according to the principle of non-discrimination. Grid operators are generally obliged to develop the grid to provide sufficient capacity for the access and transmission of electricity. Heat from renewable sources is promoted through a premium tariff (bonuses on top of the wholesale price) as well as tax benefits.The Netherlands has adopted an obligation scheme which should result in a 10% RES share of energy consumption in the transport sector. Tax credits exist for biofuel and hydrogen related RES-T investments. Regarding policies, the Dutch Energy Agency facilitates market parties and specific organisations to establish training and certification facilities for RES installers and installations. Innovation in energy is supported through innovation contracts between private companies, universities, R&D institutes. In the framework of the Energieinvesteringsaftrek, tax credits are available for RES-H infrastructure.

A biofuel obligation has been in place over the past few years, but the last year for which a mandatory biofuel quota is mentioned is 2010. Quotas for 2011-2014 are not mentioned in the NREAP, but are envisaged to increase slightly; this is yet to be decided by parliament.For companies investing in renewable energy source (RES) projects, a tax relief (EIA) exists, which contributes substantially to the project’s economic viability. Annual budgets are limited and regularly exhausted for some technologies and underexploited for others.

The Green Deal

The Green Deal was presented on 3 October 2011. It constitutes an arrangement between the Dutch Government and society, namely citizens, enterprises, authorities and other organisations, and is designed to help them implement plans for achieving sustainability. The Green Deal aims to eliminate obstacles, for example statutory and regulatory problems, ensure effective and objective information provision and bring about effective cooperation. In practice, simple solutions such as better cooperation between government and local enterprises often turn out to promote the implementation of new sustainable projects. The Green Deal covers specific projects in such areas as energy saving, sustainable energy, sustainable mobility and sustainable use of raw materials and water. The Dutch Government is set to conclude further Green Deals with society in the coming years. Citizens, enterprises, organisations and other authorities are asked to come up with new proposals by February 2012, with the themes covered being energy, raw materials, mobility and water.

Source
Static Source:
  • Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated (OECI) is a private sector organization established in 2011 with the mission to provide quality technical and policy advice on sustainable development. Okapi's work includes project design, management and evaluation, strategic planning, capacity development, resource mobilization, scientific and technical advisory services, technology transfer. Okapi's experience extends in climate-affected sectors such as agriculture, sustainable land and water management, coastal zone management, infrastructure and others.

  • STENUM GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    STENUM has worked for UNIDO, UNEP and IFC in training their Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production Centers and supporting them in the implementation of various activities (education of national experts, consultancy of companies in waster reduction, water minimization, chemicals management and energy efficiency). STENUM has elaborated several manuals and training materials (UNIDO train the trainer toolkit, UNEP PRESME toolkit).

  • Ecofys a Navigant company

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Ecofys, a Navigant company, is an international energy and climate consultancy focused on sustainable energy for everyone. Founded in 1984, the company is a trusted advisor to governments, corporations, NGOs, and energy providers worldwide. The team delivers powerful results in the energy and climate transition sectors. Working across the entire energy value chain, Ecofys develops innovative solutions and strategies to support its clients in enabling the energy transition and working through the challenges of climate change.

  • Ecosoluzioni Snc

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Italy
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Research and consulting on policy & market uptake actions in sustainable energy, clean tech, agriculture, waste mngt. and environment. Since 2000, wide-ranging technical assistance experience in climate change adaptation & mitigation related services, including: tech. assessments, business coaching, feasibility analysis, policy/market analysis, policy planning, M & E, partnership facilitation, finance structuring, agro-energy value chains, natural resources management, technology transfer. 

  • SNV Netherlands Development Organization

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    SNV is a not-for-profit international development organisation founded in the Netherlands 50 years ago. SNV helps people overcome poverty in 38 of the poorest countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America by enabling access to thetools, knowledge and connections they need to increase their incomes and gain access to basic services. SNV works in three key sectors - Agriculture, Renewable Energy and WASH - and in the cross cutting themes of lnclusive Business, REDD+ and Climate Smart Agriculture.

  • Roedl & Partner

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Roedl & Partner is a globally active professional services firm with approximately 4,000 employees and physical presence in 78 countries, including developing countries. One focus area of Roedl & Partner is public Management Consulting, which covers the energy sector. Roedl & Partner's interdisciplinary Renewable Energy team offers comprehensive business, legal, regulatory, and management consulting services to renewable energy sector clients worldwide. Roedl & Partner manages the Geothermal Risk Mitigation Fund (East Africa).

  • Integra Government Services International LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Integra designs, implements, and evaluates international development activities, with a focus on creating opportunities for the poor, expanding access to public infrastructure, promoting social and ecological resilience and strengthening donor programs. Integra has a proven record of innovative approaches yielding lasting results. Integra is a partner of NASA in deploying state-of-the-art Earth Observation technology for REDD+ MRV, while working to build on-the-ground socio-ecological resilience. 

     

  • HEAT - Habitat, Energy Application & Technology

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    HEAT is a independent consulting company focussed on the development and implementation of projects for climate and ozone protection. HEAT has a focus on technology cooperation, policy advice for climate protection technologies, particular in the areas of energy efficiency, cooling and refrigeration, F-gases, inventories, roadmaps, carrying out technical and economic feasibility studies and capacity building measures such as training and certification. HEAT is also the Coordination Office of the NDE Germany.

  • World Coal Association

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    World Coal Association is the global industry association formed of major international coal producers and stakeholders. The WCA works to demonstrate and gain acceptance for the role coal plays in achieving a sustainable and lower carbon energy future. World coal organization's regular policy analysis, workshops, media updates and strategic research provide access to  the highest level of information on the global coal industry and its role in energy, climate and sustainable development issues. 

     

  • Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Ireland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Environmental Research Institute (ERI) is a flagship Institute for Environmental, Marine and Energy research in Ireland. The ERI has over 300 researchers working in interdisciplinary and currently has 45 live research projects focused on climate mitigation, adaptation and understanding. Focus areas include energy modelling, marine renewables, biofuels, energy efficiency, climate adaptation platforms, modelling greenhouse gas fluxes, atmospheric chemistry and carbon liabilities.