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Macedonia

Official Name:
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Energy profile

FYR Macedonia (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

National electrification rate (2000):  97.4%The 220 kV network is not very developed. It consists of three overhead lines (OHLs) and two substations (SS). Two OHLs connect SS Skopje 1 and TPP Kosovo A, but only one is in operation. There has been very limited exchange between neighbouring power systems over these two OHLs. Because of the present role of the 220 kV network, and its limited possibilities for improvement, there are no plans for its upgrade.The main role of the 400 kV network is to connect the major production facilities in the south of the country with the major consumer base in the north. Besides that, through the three 400 kV OHLs (two with Greece and one with Kosovo), the 400 kV network provides interconnection to neighbouring power systems.The 110 kV network had been used as the backbone of the transmission network of the country. As the 400 kV network developed, and as consumption grew, the role of the 110 kV network has changed. Nowadays, parts of this network have a regional or even local role. 

Renewable energy potential

HydropowerDepending on hydrological conditions in the year, 15 to 18% of the annual electricity production in Macedonia comes from hydro power plants.  Macedonia has a significant potential for construction of small hydro-power plants (with installed capacity of less than 5 MW in size) located at roughly 400 sites throughout the country, which have been already identified, and which may meet over 10% of the country’s current electricity needs. An estimated 1088 GWh could be generated annually from this resource, 17.5% of the total theoretical potential of the country’s hydro resource.Geothermal energyGeothermal energy accounts for 2.4% of total production in the heat production sector. There are possibilities for increasing the exploitation of existing and new geothermal sources. Macedonia is quite rich in geothermal sources suitable for different uses except for the production of electricity. Proven thermal potential is estimated to be 220 MWt. The Macedonian Geothermal Association has identified eight existing geothermal projects for expansion and rehabilitation, mainly those used for geothermal heat in greenhouses, and for space heating.Solar energyThe solar energy is being used at a symbolic level for domestic water heating. But the geographical position and climate in Macedonia offer a very good perspective to intensify the use of solar collectors, with the country having one of the most favourable solar regimes in Europe. The annual average for daily solar radiation varies between 3.4 kWh/m2 in the Northern part of the country (Skopje) and 4.2 kWh/m2 in the South Western part (Bitola). The first private photovoltaic plant in Macedonia opened in 2009, a 10.2 kW installation near Skopje.Biomass energyThere is relatively high potential in the country for utilising biogas from animal manure for energy generation purposes, as well as growing crops for production of biofuel. There is also a significant potential for wood pellet use in the residential heating sector over firewood. An estimated 180,000 cubic metres of wood waste are produced annually, a potential which is entirely unutilised.Wind energyAccording to the Preliminary Atlas of the Winds in Republic of Macedonia, 15 possible locations with sufficient energy potential for construction of wind power plants with foreseen installed capacity 25 MW to 33 MW were identified. Average wind speeds of 6.5 – 8.5 m/s at 80m have been recorded in mountainous regions, with an average of 7 m/s in the in south-eastern regions of Macedonia.On the basis of the Atlas, a Monitoring Programme of the Wind Potential in the Republic of Macedonia is in implementation from 2006, with a grant from the Norwegian Government.  

Energy framework

In 2006, Macedonia ratified the Energy Community Treaty. The strategic priorities of Macedonia in the energy sector and provisions that transpose the acquis communautaire are incorporated in the new Energy Law, adopted by the Parliament in 2006. The new Energy Law clearly targets EE and RES by including a special chapter. The Law contains provisions about the development of a Strategy for improvement of EE for a period of ten years and a 5-year Program for the implementation of the Strategy. The Law includes provisions for EE in the construction of new and reconstruction of existing facilities, including energy audits and buildings certificates.  It also calls for applying technical specifications and standards for efficient use of fossil fuels on new motor vehicles, facilities for generation of electricity, heat and other energy intensive industrial capacities that are sold and/or imported on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The scope and provisions of the Energy Law provide an adequate legal framework for the energy efficiency policy of Macedonia. There are on-going efforts for developing and adopting the secondary legislation and technical regulations, as only the labelling of household appliances is regulated so far.To address some of the existing barriers to energy efficiency, the government of Macedonia initiated The Sustainable Energy Project, supported by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the World Bank.  The Sustainable Energy Project is aimed at introducing two appropriate instruments for financing energy efficiency and small scale renewable initiatives, both based on market principles: ESCOs and loan/guarantee facility. Utilities and local banks are involved in programme implementation.The legal framework for exploitation of renewable energy sources is the Energy Law. The adoption of a Strategy for Renewable Energy Sources is foreseen for 2008.Following the provisions of the Energy Law, preferential feed-in tariff for purchase of electricity generated by small hydropower plants and by wind power plants were adopted by the Energy Regulatory Commission in 2007.  Feed-in tariffs are currently in place for small hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass/biogas, ranging in price from 4.5 €cents/kWh for hydropower, to 46 €cents/kWh for small photovoltaic. 

Source
Static Source:
  • Investor Interest and Capacity-Building Needs. Financing Energy Efficiency Investments for Climate Change Mitigation Project

    Type: 
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    Investor Interest and Capacity-Building Needs. Financing Energy Efficiency Investments for Climate Change Mitigation Project
    Publication date:

    This report summarizes findings of assessment missions in Albania, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Ukraine. For each country, the following details are provided: energy overview, financial environment in energy efficiency and renewable energy (including legal, regulatory, and policy framework), existing financing mechanisms, potential projects, and investor interest.

  • Sustainable Energy Regulation Network (SERN) Policy Database

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    This database provides energy information for countries throughout the world, including Africa; the Baltic States, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe; Latin America and the Caribbean; the Middle East; Russia and FSU; South Asia; South East Asia; and the Pacific Region. For each country, the database provides information on energy sources, reliance, electrification expansion, capacity concerns, renewable energy, energy efficiency, ownership, competition, framework, national energy priorities, the role of government, and regulation.

  • Project Outputs Database (Website)

    Type: 
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    Publication date:

    This web-based database provides detailed project output documents from Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) projects. The database contains output documents from specific types of energy access, energy efficiency, and renewable energy programmes. These documents can be searched based for certain technologies or particular countries. Output documents are in English, Spanish, Chinese, French, and Portuguese. REEEP projects aim to improve access to clean and reliable energy in developing countries.

  • Policy and Regulatory Overviews (Website)

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    reegle's policy and regulatory overviews provide country highlights for a variety of policies and regulations relating to energy, energy efficiency, fuels, standards and labeling, incentives such as feed-in tariffs for renewables, national targets, and other national strategies for low-carbon development.

  • Country Energy Profiles (Website)

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    This reegle website provides comprehensive energy profiles for all countries with information from reliable sources such as UN or the World Bank. Profile information includes national policies on energy-related issues, visualized statistics, renewable energy potentials maps, national projects programmes, and key stakeholders.

  • Fuel Switching and Climate and Energy Policies in the European Power Generation Sector: A Generalized Leontief Model

    Type: 
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    Publication date:

    This study analyzes the role and nature of price-induced fuel switching behaviour between fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) in the western European power sector. It also investigates the impact of a number of public policies on fuel choice in the energy sector during the last 20 years. The empirical results show evidence of notable short-run inter-fuel substitution between oil and gas, particularly in countries where fossil fuels are used extensively for both base and peak load purposes.

  • Robust Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs)? The Topography of Abatement by Fuelswitching in the European Power Sector

    Type: 
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    Publication date:

    This paper employs a simulation model of the European power sector in order to analyze the abatement response to a carbon dioxide (CO2) price through fuel switching. Abatement is shown to depend on the price of allowances, but, more importantly, on the load level of the system and the ratio between natural gas and coal prices. The interplay of these determinants vitiates any simple relation between a CO2 price and abatement and requires the development of more than two-dimensional graphics to illustrate these complex relationships.

  • Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction by Means of Fuelswitching in Electricity Generation: Addressing the Potentials

    Type: 
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    Publication date:

    This paper investigates the possibilities that exist for switching coal-fired plants to gas-fired plants, depending on load level. A fixed allowance cost and a variable natural gas price are assumed. The method to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials is first illustrated in a methodological case. Next, the GHG emission reduction potentials are addressed for several western European countries together with a relative positioning of their electricity generation. GHG emission reduction potentials are also compared with simulation results.

  • Progress Towards Implementation of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)-Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in Europe

    Type: 
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    Progress Towards Implementation of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)-Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in Europe
    Publication date:

    This paper covers development and demonstration initiatives of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in Europe. It also presents technical and political barriers blocking the way for early commercialization of the IGCC-CCS technology in Europe.

  • REN21 Renewables 2012 Global Status Report: Europe

    Type: 
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    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    With a focus on Europe, this webinar—part of a series—presents the findings of REN21’s Renewables 2012 Global Status Report, which addresses the cumulating effect of steady growth in renewable energy markets, support policies and investment over the past years.