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Kazakhstan

Official Name:
Republic of Kazakhstan
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Olzhas Agabekov
Position:
Head of the Climate Change Department
Phone:
+77172740228
Emails:
o.agabekov@energo.gov.kz
,
Name:
Ms. Saltanat Rakhimbekova
Position:
Deputy Chairwoman of the Board of the International Green Technologies and Investment Centre
Emails:
str_2010@mail.ru

Energy profile

Kazakhstan (2014)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The transmission and distribution system comprises three networks, two in the north and one in the south, totalling 285,000 km of distribution lines. Of the northern networks, one exports electricity to Russia and the other imports it from Russia. The southern network—connected to the Unified Energy System (UES) of Central Asia—imports electricity from the Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.

Renewable energy potential

HydropowerHydropower accounts for approximately 12% of Kazakhstan’s total generating capacity. Average annual hydropower generation in Kazakhstan amounts to 7.78 billion kWh. By absolute indices of potential hydro resources Kazakhstan is third amongst CIS countries. Hydropower potential of Kazakhstan is estimated at about 170 billion kWh per year, technically feasible – 62 billion kWh, economically feasible – 27 billion kWh, effectively used - 7–8 billion kWh per year (8,860.9 million kWh in 2002).  Hydro resources are spread throughout the country, but there are three major districts: the Irtysh River basin with main tributaries (Bukhtarma, Uba, Ulba, Kurchum, Kardzhil, South-Eastern zone with the Ili River basin, and the Southern zone – basins of Syrdaria, Talas and Chu rivers.Programs of small hydropower development in Kazakhstan include reconstruction and renovation of previously constructed small HPPs, adding small HPPs to water management projects with already existing water retaining structures with the aim of utilizing waste releases, and construction of new small HPPs for power supply of users in the outlying districts of the power system. Favourable factors for the development of hydro potential are:Interest of regional authorities in small hydropowerPrivate investors of small hydropower are provided with state short-term credits;There are some privileges (tax holidays) in realization of investment projectsWindExceptionally rich in wind resources, about 50% of Kazakhstan’s territory has average wind speeds about 4-5 m/sec at a height of 30 m. Some calculations estimate the wind potential of Kazakhstan around 1,820 billion KW/h per year spread over most of the country. Windy sites are mostly located in the Caspian Sea area of Atyray and Mangistay oblasts; and in central and southern Kazakhstan. A country wide-wind atlas is available. With a density of wind capacity about 10 MW/sq.km, there is a possibility to install thousands MW of wind farms in Kazakhstan. In May 2013, terms of an agreement have been signed by the Eurasian Development Bank for the first ever wind power plant in Kazakhstan to be located in the town of Yereimentau in the Akmola region with the 45-megawatt wind facility.Three wind power plants will be launched in Almaty oblast in the period from 2014 to 2018.The Ministry of Industry and New Technologies of Kazakhstan has selected 10 sitesfor construction of large wind power plants (WPP) with total capacity up to 1,000 MW in orderto provide for commercial generation of electricity in the amount of 2–3 billion kWh.Only one wind power plant has been put into operation in Kazakhstan: in December 2011Kordaiskaya WPP was launched (1,500 kW) in the Zhambyl Region.SolarThe solar energy resource potential is quite great for the vast territory of the largest Central Asian Republic. The number of sunny hours is 2,200-3,000 per year, and the energy of solar radiation is 1,300-1,800 kW/m2/year. Despite the very favourable conditions for solar energy, there is little use of the resource yet.  Six solar plants of 50 MW are to be built in the country's southern Zhambyl region by end of 2016BiomassThe area of Kazakhstan occupied by forests reaches more than 10 million hectares that represents 4% of the whole territory of country, from which 4.7 million hectares are covered by saxaul. In 1990, the volume of logging in forests made up about 3 million clear m3 per year.  Wood processing at woodworking factories as well as the wood, which is used as firewood, make up almost 1.3 million clear m3 or 1 million tons. Thus, the energy potential of timber waste comprises more than 200 thousand toe.GeothermalKazakhstan possesses a large resource of middle and low temperature thermal water. Evaluation of geothermal resources was carried out in accordance with testing results for numerous wells drilled for oil and gas exploration and production. The most prospective geothermal reservoirs were found in Cretaceous formations in the South and South west of Kazakhstan.The geothermal field Kaplanbek (near the city of Shymkent) with thermal water temperature of80°C is used for the heat supply of residential buildings. Thermal water resources (temperature 80–120°C) near the city of Almaty are used for heating greenhouses in winter and for air-conditioning in summer.

Energy framework

Kazakhstan plans to promote RES development in the following key directions:Creation of favorable conditions for construction and operation of RES capacities;Promotion of electricity and heat generation from RES and creation of favorable conditions for efficient integration of RES capacities in the Unified Power System;Allocation for investment incentives.The Program of Electricity Sector Development for 2010–2014 includes wind power plants that are in energy balance, and that can contribute to about 1% of the total energy consumption by 2015.Law on Power IndustryThe Law on Power Industry is dated 9 July 2004. This law regulates social relations arising in course of generation, transmission and use of electric and thermal energy.Law on the Use of Renewable Energy SourcesIn June 2009 Kazakhstan's parliament passed the final amendments to the Law on the Use of Renewable Energy Sources, which established a full regulatory framework for the division. The law obliges all electricity transmission companies to allow the renewables sector to connect to the grid. The law also provides for a number of incentives including feed-in tariffs adopted end of August 2013 (with rates to be determined). In addition, the legislation states that 5% of Kazakhstan's total energy balance must be renewable by 2024.Kyoto ProtocolKazakhstan signed the Kyoto Protocol in March 1999, and this was finally approved by parliament in February 2009, making it the last signatory country to ratify the treaty.  President Nazarbayev ratified the document formally into law in June 2009. Kazakhstan will now be able to sell emission rights to countries that have exceeded their pollution quotas. According to the country's own latest assessment (2009) for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), its total greenhouse gas emissions in 2005 amounted to the equivalent of 237m tonnes of carbon dioxide, or about 74% of the level in 1990.The energy industry accounted for 83% of the total, up from 80% in 1990. Under this assessment, most of the proposed reductions in greenhouse gas emissions over the forecast period can be achieved by upgrading existing generating capacity to make it more fuel-efficient and cleaner, a process that will require substantial investment. The assessment also envisions greater use of coal from 2015 onwards, because of its cost advantages over other fuels, including natural gas.National Programme for Accelerated Industrial and Innovation DevelopmentThe National Programme for Accelerated Industrial and Innovation Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period from 2010 to 2014. One of the main targets of the Programme is to reduce energy intensity of industry in order to achieve competitiveness of Kazakhstan’s economy. The programme also sets the target of achieving 1% share of electricity produced from RES by 2015. National Programme for Transition to Sustainable DevelopmentThe National Programme for Transition to Sustainable Development calls for increasing RES’ share in Kazakhstan’s energy balance to 5% by 2024.Energy Efficiency 2020 ProgrammeIn August 2013, Kazakhstan adopted the Energy Efficiency 2020 Program that would reduce emission 10% every year until 2015. Adopted by Prime Minister Serik Akhmetov, this new law would help reduce emissions and help with energy efficient solutions from large companies to small families. 2,000 industrial enterprises would have to undergo energy audits by July 2015. The program in the long run shall reduce the amount of energy per square meter by 30% and reduce costs by 14%.

Source
Static Source:
  • Watermelon live mulch climatic adaptation capabilities in Africa tropical cropping systems.

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Books/Chapters in Books: (1) David Ojo. 2016. Watermelon live mulch climatic adaptation capabilities in Africa tropical cropping systems. In: Handbook of Cucurbits: Growth, Cultural Practices and Physiology. Taylor & Francis Publishing Group (TFG), Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A. Edited by Pessarakli. Catalog #: K23003. ISBN: 978-1-4822-3458-9. 13pp. (2) David Ojo. 2015. Cucurbits: Botany, Ecology, Genetic Resources and Breeding. In: Handbook of Cucurbits: Growth, Cultural Practices and Physiology. Taylor & Francis Publishing Group (TFG), Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.

  • Broschüre “Cool bleiben: Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Wachstum, Kühlung und Klimawandel“

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    1. Steigender Energiebedarf und ein Recht auf Kühlung? Darf es ihn geben, den Anspruch auf eine Klimaanlage und einen Kühlschrank – ähnlich wie das Recht auf eine Heizung? 2. Kühle Kette für eine gesunde Versorgung Nach Schätzungen der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) verderben durchschnittlich 30 Prozent, in tropischen Ländern sogar 50 Prozent der Lebensmittel mangels angemessener Lagerung. 3. Grüne Technik und Wertschöpfung Das Zauberwort heißt Ressourceneffizienz. Der Schlüssel in der Kältetechnik dafür sind natürliche Gase. 4.

  • Cool und nachhaltig: Kühlung in der internationalen Zusammenarbeit

    Type: 
    Publication
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    Objective:

    Kühlschrank und Klimaanlage – sie stehen ganz oben auf der Wunschliste von Menschen in heißen Ländern. Bis zum Jahr 2030 rechnet die Internationale Energieagentur (IEA) mit einem viermal höheren Energiebedarf für Klimatisierung in den Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern im Vergleich zu heute. Auch werden oft chemisch hergestellte Gase als Kühlmittel eingesetzt. Sie schädigen die Ozonschicht und treiben den Klimawandel voran. Grüne Technologien nutzen hingegen natürliche Gase zur Kälteerzeugung, sind energieeffizienter und können mit Sonnen- oder Windkraft betrieben werden.

  • Cool and sustainable: Refrigeration and international cooperation

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Refrigerators and air conditioning units feature high on the wish lists of people in hot countries. The International Energy Agency (IEA) calculates that by the year 2030 the energy consumption for air conditioning in developing countries and emerging nations will be four times what it is today. It is often the case that the gases used as refrigerants are produced chemically. They are damaging to the ozone layer and accelerate climate change. By contrast green technologies use natural gases in the cooling process, are more energy efficient and can be driven by sun or wind power.

  • Factsheet: Green Cooling Initiative

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Due to the rising temperatures, population, urbanization and economic growth, the demand of cooling and air conditioning is steadily increasing. The “Green Cooling Network” was established in order to promote a dialogue between stakeholders from industries, policy, research and non-governmental organizations. The project aims to implement the Cancun decisions to build efficient processes and structures that serve to accelerate the technology transfer for mitigation and adaptation in developing countries.

  • Factsheet: Proklima - Protection of the ozone layer, Technology transfer with cooperation with private industry

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Initiated by the detection of the so called “ozone hole” over the Antarctic, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer came into force in 1987. The Protocol regulates the phase-out of production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in refrigeration and air conditioning. This phase-out has led to the introduction of new, environmental-friendly technologies in industrialized countries.

  • NAMAs in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam blowing sectors

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This handbook aims to serve policy makers and practitioners in developing countries as a comprehensive guideline for the preparation and implementation of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam blowing (RAC&F) sectors. To date it is the only comprehensive compendium addressing the RAC&F sectors with respect to NAMAs, or, more generally, cost-effective mitigation actions on a sectoral level.

  • GIZ-programme towards ozone layer and climate protection

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Proklima is a programme of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. It started in 1995 to support the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and also other international conventions and initiatives in the field of ozone layer and climate protection (e.g. Kyoto Protocol) in developing countries.