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Official Name:
Kyrgyz Republic

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Mr. Kanat Abdrahmanov
+996 551 699000, +996 312 975774

Energy profile

Kyrgyzstan (2012)

Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Official household survey data indicate that, while nearly all households are nominal connected to the national electricity grid of the country, a sharp increase in the frequency of planned and unplanned service interruptions during 2008-2009 effectively broke the link between grid connections and reliable electricity supplied. Gas, central heating, and hot water supplies are typically unavailable to rural and many urban households.

Renewable energy potential

The total RES potential of Kyrgyzstan is around 590 Mio TOE/year, but with the exception of small-scale hydropower, it remains largely unused. Kyrgyzstan has good potential for the application of decentralized renewable energy technologies, primarily small hydropower stations on mountain rivers, solar and wind energy, and biogas plants. In comparison to big hydro and hydro-carbons, decentralized renewable projects are relatively inexpensive (in terms of up-front capital costs), and can attract at least some of the financing needed for their construction and maintenance from donors and the communities in which they are located. Despite this, according to one source, less than 1% of this potential is being utilized.HydroAccording to various estimates, Kyrgyzstan is not using more than 10% of its total hydropower capacity, which is assessed at 140 billion kWh by the “National Power Grid” company. The combination of abundant water resources and reliance on hydro power poses a dilemma for policy makers in Kyrgyzstan. The construction of new hydro power plants—both along the Naryn cascade and on smaller rivers—is an obvious way to increase capacity for winter power generation, as well as boost exports and promote economic development. The Ministry of Energy has conducted feasibility studies for constructing some 47 hydropower plants across the country.WindThe reported annual average wind speed ranges from 0.5 m/s to 3.6 m/s. The total wind potential is estimated at 1,500 MW. There has been minimal wind development activity in Kyrgyzstan.BiomassMore than 50% of agricultural lands are occupied by pastures that determined the main branch of agriculture – livestock breeding. The livestock waste, which could be used after processing in biogas plants, constitutes approximately 2,500 thousand tons per year. It is estimated that biogas plants could produce some 5 million tons of fertilizer and some 200 million cubic meters of gas in Kyrgyzstan annually. Currently, biogas facilities produce around 2 million cubic meters of biogas annually, which is used in the residential and commercial sector.SolarKyrgyzstan is rich in solar potential. The average annual output of solar energy is about 1,500 - 2,500 kWh per square meter; also, approximately 2,600 sunshine hours are recorded annually.GeothermalThe geothermal resources of Kyrgyz Republic include many thermal springs and high heat generating granites. It is believed that low to medium heat geothermal resources could be used for district heating. 

Energy framework

Kyrgyzstan’s National Energy Programme officially recognizes the importance of decentralized renewables; and a programme to develop small and medium-size power plants has been adopted. The law “On Renewable Energy” (of 31 December 2008) provides the over-arching legal framework, which regulates the development and use of decentralized renewable energy technologies. It calls for mechanisms to stimulate the development of these technologies, and to support producers and consumers of decentralized renewables. In particular, the government is to support tariff-setting so as to guarantee an eight-year payback period for decentralized renewable projects. However, while this law created the legal framework for decentralized renewables, the practical framework for its implementation has yet to be fully introduced.In May 2003, the Kyrgyz Republic ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Clean Development Mechanism) in May 2003.The National Energy Program of Kyrgyzstan (though 2010) and the Strategy for the Fuel and Energy Complex Development (though 2025) call for the rapid expansion of renewables by building around 100 small hydroelectric plants with a total capacity of approximately 180 MW.Legislation on RE and specifically small hydropower stations has been fairly successful in Kyrgyzstan. To promote public awareness of renewable energy, booklets describing the benefits of small hydropower stations as well as how to install a small hydropower plant were distributed to rural communities. Also, a revolving credit facility was established in Karakol by the “Issyk-Kul Activist” NGO in order to help farmers finance small hydropower plants for their operations or residences. As a result of this legislation, two pilot projects (5 kW each) have been launched by local companies.The government’s programme to develop small and medium-size power plants calls for the construction and reconstruction of 43 small and medium-sized facilities (primarily small hydropower plants, in mostly the 2-3 MW installed capacity range) with total installed capacity of 277 MW. It also calls for the construction of a wind power plant near Balykchi with a rated capacity of 22 MW. 

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