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Japan

Official Name:
Japan
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Michihiro Oi
Position:
Director, Office of International Strategy on Climate Change (MOE)
Phone:
+81 3 5521 8330
Emails:
CTCN_NDE@env.go.jp
Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Takayuki Hirabayashi
Position:
Director of Global Environmental Affairs Office
Phone:
+81 3 3501 7830
Emails:
CTCN_NDE@meti.go.jp

Energy profile

Japan (2014)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Electrification rate (2004):  100%Electricity transmission in Japan is divided in two regions each running at a different mains frequency. Eastern Japan runs at 50 Hz; Western Japan runs at 60 Hz. This originates from the first purchase of generators from AEG for Tokyo in 1895 and from General Electric for Osaka in 1896. This frequency difference partitions Japan's national grid; and the limitations of these links has been a major problem in providing power to the areas of Japan affected by the Fukushima nuclear accidents.“Smart grid” has been introduced in order to realise efficient use of power as Japan actively increases the introduction of new energy in electric power generation.

Renewable energy potential

The renewables boom of 2012 to 2013 was largely driven by the energy gap created by this anticipated shift away from nuclear, supported by generous tariffs introduced in July 2012. It was never expected that renewables would fil the gap immediately, necessitating an increase in fossil fuel imports (such as LNG from Australia) to meet demand in the short term. But the nuclear gap undeniably established a long-term goal for domestic, and clean, energy supplies.Japan currently sources approximately 9% of its energy from renewable sources. There has been a significant push to develop renewable energy in Japan in order to boost energy self-sufficiency and to move away from nuclear power in the wake of the 2011 disasters. However, with the recent election of the Liberal Democratic Party it is expected that Japan will no longer seek to decommission all nuclear power plants.SolarJapan currently has the fourth-largest PV market in the world and is the third-largest producer of PV panels. Japan formerly had one of the largest programs in the world to promote rooftop solar panels. However, the domestic solar industry has since fallen somewhat behind the international market leaders.WindThe topographical features of Japan present challenges in wind development. Hokkaido and Tohoku are two of the regions where large-scale wind farms continue to be constructed. In 2010, the total installed wind capacity was 2,304MW.Hydropower65% of Japan’s 34 GW of hydropower reserves have already been tapped into.BiomassBy July 2009, 218 towns were established as biomass towns as part of the Biomass Nippon Strategy.BiofuelsThe Japanese Government predicts that Japan has the capacity to produce 6 Gl per year of biofuels by 2030. Use of abandoned arable land (386,000 ha) could produce resource crops equivalent to 6.2Gl of oil.GeothermalJapan’s geothermal capacity is 2,470 MW and in 2011 more than 540 MW of installed capacity was producing power.

Energy framework

Basic Act on Energy Policy
The Basic Act on Energy Policy was enacted in June 2002 and seeks to set out the country’s fundamental and overall energy policy direction after approval of the Diet. The core principles of Japan’s energy policy are: 1) Energy security, 2) Adaptability to the environment, and 3) Use of market mechanisms.The law directs the government to draft a Basic Energy Plan based on these principles to formulate energy demand related policies in a long-term and comprehensive manner and to review the Plan ever three years.The Basic Energy Plan was established in 2003. It indicated comprehensive basic guidelines for future energy policies and affirmed continuous promotion of nuclear as the core energy source. The Plan was revised in 2007. In June 2010, the revised Strategic Energy Plan of Japan was formulated in consistent with the “New Growth Strategy”. It articulates the fundamental direction of energy policy in Japan, based on the Basic Act on Energy Policy above. The basic points of view in energy policy are energy security, environmental protection and efficient supply. In the revision, two new points of view were added, namely energy-based economic growth and reform of the energy industrial structure. Japan will fundamentally change its energy supply and demand system by 2030 through achieving several targets:Doubling the energy self-sufficiency ratio, and the self-developed fossil fuel supply ratio, and as a result, raising its “energy independence ratio” to about 70%;Raising the zero-emission power source ration to about 70%;Halving CO2 emissions from the residential sector;Maintaining and enhancing energy efficiency in the industrial sector ay the highest level in the world; andMaintaining or obtaining top-class shares of global markets for energy-related products and systems.By achieving these targets, domestic energy related CO2 emissions will be reduced by 30% or more in 2030 compared to the 1990 level, if policies are promoted sufficiently.Special Measures Law on Use of New energy, etc., by Electric Utilities (known as the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS))The 2003 Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) seeks to increase new energies in the field of electric power. A part of the hydroelectric and geothermal power generation is designated as the target power sources in the RPS law. It established procurement quotas to increase the volume of electricity generated from RES (excluding hydro) from 7,3 billion kWh in 2003 to 12,2 billion kWh in 2010 (equivalent to around 1% of total electricity generation).Under the RPS law, an obligation rate is assigned to each of Japan’s ten electric utilities, along with new entrants such as power producers and suppliers (PPSs). In 2007, a target of 16 billion kWh was set for 2014, while the obligation rate applied to each utility to achieve the target was set as a percentage of its electricity sales in the previous year. The Japanese RPS allows for trading between utilities.  As in other RPS models, Japan separates the so-called “green” portion of electricity generation as a specific product form the electricity itself. Renewable electricity generators create green RPS credits form their generation and can sell the credits in the RPS market while selling the electricity to the power market, to different buyers.New National Energy StrategyIn 2006, the New National Energy Strategy was launched containing a program of action to 2030 placing considerable emphasis on achieving energy security. Its five targets are further EE improvements of at least 30%; increasing the share of electric power derived from nuclear energy to more than 30%–40%; reducing oil dependence in transport to about 80%; raising Japanese investment in oil exploration and development; and reducing oil dependence below 40%.The Strategic Energy Plan was revised again in 2010. It is required to be reviewed at least every three years, and to be revised if needed. In this revision, two new principles—‘energy-based economic growth’ and ‘reform of the energy industrial structure’—were added to the three existing principles of ‘energy security’, ‘environmental suitability’ and ‘economic efficiency’.The Strategic Energy Plan aims to fundamentally change the energy supply and demand system by 2030 and has set ambitious targets for 2030:Doubling the energy self-sufficiency ratio (18% at present) and the self-developed fossil fuel supply ratio (26% at present) and as a result, raising Japan’s ‘energy independence ratio’ to about 70% (38% at present)Raising the zero-emission power sources ratio to about 70% (34% at present)Halving CO2 emissions from the residential sectorMaintaining and enhancing energy efficiency in the industrial sector at the highest level in the worldMaintaining or obtaining top-class shares of global markets for energy-related products and systems.Energy Conservation Frontrunner Plan (2006)The Energy Conservation Frontrunner Plan sets a strategy to achieve the EE target of the National Energy Strategy through strategic planning in the medium and long term. It establishes a plan to develop energy conservation technology and to develop and disseminate benchmarking, so that the energy conservation effect can be quantitatively verified.In 2010, the revised Strategic Energy Plan set these initiatives:Enhancing Japan’s energy efficiency (already the highest level in the world) through introducing the most advanced technologies for replacing equipment in the industrial sectorMaking net-zero-energy houses available by 2020 and realizing net-zero-energy houses as the average across the economy by 2030Setting compulsory energy-saving standards for houses and compiling compulsory standardization targetsReplacing 100% of lighting with highly-efficient lamps (including LED and organic EL lighting) on a flow basis by 2020 and on a stock basis by 2030Introducing new integrated standards for energy consumption in all buildings for implementation in two yearsEnhancing support and regulatory measures (including top-runner standards) to increase the take-up of energy-saving consumer electronics, energy-saving information technology equipment, heat pump water heaters, fuel cells, hybrid construction machines and other highly efficient equipmentRaising next-generation vehicles’ share of new vehicle sales to up to 50% by 2020 and up to 70% by 2030 by mobilizing all possible policy measures.Fukuda VisionThe federal government originally established a long-term energy goal to install 4.82 GW of PV by Fiscal Year 2010. Although this goal is likely to be unachievable, it has been replaced by more ambitious "vision" created by the former Prime Minister Fukuda in June 2008. The Fukuda Vision of energy and environmental policy in Japan includes a long-term GHG reduction target and effective policy measures. They include: a long-term GHG emissions reduction target of 60-80%, relative to current levels by 2050; in the medium term, a reduction of GHG emissions by 14% by 2020, relative to 2005 levels as a feasible largest reduction; a target that “zero emission electricity” (such as generated from renewable and nuclear resources) be more than 50% of total generation by 2020, up from the current level of about 40%; amongst others. To achieve the “zero emission electricity” target, increasing the cumulative PV installed capacity by 10 times, from the 2005 level, to 14 GW by 2020 and by 40 times to 53 GW by 2030 are planned. The former Prime Minister also pledged to install PV systems on 70% of newly built homes by 2020.In response to the Fukuda Vision, three policies toward more renewable energy have been announced. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) restarted a subsidy for installation of solar PV panels for the residential market  in January 2009. Income tax credits for installation of solar panels at the same time as renovation of a home were to begin in April 2009. A policy similar to a ‘feed-in tariff’’ is also being implementedFeed-in tariff systemIndirectly related to the RPS, some solar PV also receives direct assistance similar to feed-in tariff.  The rate for solar PV was JPY 19 to JPY 23 per kWh in 2006. Under the excess power purchasing menu, electric utilities voluntarily purchase excess power primarily from residential generators that self-supply and sell excess power back to the grid.Research and developmentBoosting the use of RE depends in part on technological advances, an area where Japan excels.  Although total research and development (R&D) outlays on energy fell slightly between 1996 and 2006, Japan’s R&D on renewables more than doubled over that period. Clean energy investment in Japan totalled less than $1 billion in 2009, placing it in 15th position. Japan is a leader in solar capacity, with 1.7 GW backed by feed-in tariffs. Japan has ambitious targets to source 28 GW from solar and 5 GW from wind by 2020.Cool Earth 50In 2007 the Government announced a cooperative initiative with major greenhouse gas emitters to reduce emissions by 50% from current levels by 2050. The actions required to achieve these goals are set out in the Cool Earth Innovative Energy Technology Program, which includes the Innovative Energy Technology Roadmap and the Technology Development Roadmap.In 2009, the Aso government announced a national GHG reduction target for the post-Kyoto regime to reduce national GHG emissions to 15% below 2005 levels by 2020. Additional policies, such as a doubling of the previously announced PV installation target from 14 GW in 2020 to 28 GW in 2020 were also announced.Japan ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 28 May 1993 as an Annex I party, and the Kyoto Protocol on 4 June 2002. Japan’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction commitment under the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC is to achieve a level of CO2 emissions only 2.3% higher than 1990 levels by 2012, planned in the Kyoto Protocol Achievement Plan. In order to fulfil the commitment, one of the focuses of current climate change policies could be  on development of nuclear energy. METI’s report “Japan’s Nuclear Energy National Plan” confirmed policies including continuing to meet at least 30-40% of electricity supply even after 2030 by nuclear power generation.

Source
Static Source:
  • Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Korea
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM) is a government-funded research institute under the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of the Republic of Korea. Its chief misison is to accelerate technological advances in mechanical engineering, test and inspect the reliability of materials and mechanical components and systems. Important reserach achievements related to climate technologies include superlow-NOx MILD combustion technology, HCNG engine and low-emission and low-carbon green car technologies.

     

     

  • Eco Ltd

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Eco is a boutique management consultancy specialized in the design and formulation of climate change mitigation and adaptation projects. Operating since 2000, Eco has worked with a wide range of international clients such as the AfDB, IFC, World Bank, UNDP, UNIDO, EBRD, GIZ and the European Union.

    Eco has designed over 250 projects in 82 countries across Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia. We have assessed markets and designed financial, technology and other strategies and then formulated projects.

  • Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated (OECI) is a private sector organization established in 2011 with the mission to provide quality technical and policy advice on sustainable development. Okapi's work includes project design, management and evaluation, strategic planning, capacity development, resource mobilization, scientific and technical advisory services, technology transfer. Okapi's experience extends in climate-affected sectors such as agriculture, sustainable land and water management, coastal zone management, infrastructure and others.

  • Sustainable Capital Advisors

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    SCA provides strategy consulting and financial advisory services to public and private sector organizations seeking to implement sustainable infrastructure projects. Our client engagements involve a diversity of technologies located in countries across the world. Our job is to assist clients "sift through the noise" and develop practical and replicable solutions based on the realities of the financial and energy markets. 

  • International Water Management Institute

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Sri Lanka
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    IWMI’s Mission is to provide evidence-based solutions to sustainably manage water and land resources for food security, people’s livelihoods and the environment. IWMI’s Vision is ‘a water-secure world’. IWMI targets water and land management challenges faced by poor communities in the developing countries, and through this contributes towards the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing poverty and hunger, and maintaining a sustainable environment. 

  • STENUM GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    STENUM has worked for UNIDO, UNEP and IFC in training their Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production Centers and supporting them in the implementation of various activities (education of national experts, consultancy of companies in waster reduction, water minimization, chemicals management and energy efficiency). STENUM has elaborated several manuals and training materials (UNIDO train the trainer toolkit, UNEP PRESME toolkit).

  • Ecofys a Navigant company

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Ecofys, a Navigant company, is an international energy and climate consultancy focused on sustainable energy for everyone. Founded in 1984, the company is a trusted advisor to governments, corporations, NGOs, and energy providers worldwide. The team delivers powerful results in the energy and climate transition sectors. Working across the entire energy value chain, Ecofys develops innovative solutions and strategies to support its clients in enabling the energy transition and working through the challenges of climate change.

  • Integra Government Services International LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Integra designs, implements, and evaluates international development activities, with a focus on creating opportunities for the poor, expanding access to public infrastructure, promoting social and ecological resilience and strengthening donor programs. Integra has a proven record of innovative approaches yielding lasting results. Integra is a partner of NASA in deploying state-of-the-art Earth Observation technology for REDD+ MRV, while working to build on-the-ground socio-ecological resilience. 

     

  • HEAT - Habitat, Energy Application & Technology

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    HEAT is a independent consulting company focussed on the development and implementation of projects for climate and ozone protection. HEAT has a focus on technology cooperation, policy advice for climate protection technologies, particular in the areas of energy efficiency, cooling and refrigeration, F-gases, inventories, roadmaps, carrying out technical and economic feasibility studies and capacity building measures such as training and certification. HEAT is also the Coordination Office of the NDE Germany.

  • World Coal Association

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    World Coal Association is the global industry association formed of major international coal producers and stakeholders. The WCA works to demonstrate and gain acceptance for the role coal plays in achieving a sustainable and lower carbon energy future. World coal organization's regular policy analysis, workshops, media updates and strategic research provide access to  the highest level of information on the global coal industry and its role in energy, climate and sustainable development issues.