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Croatia

Official Name:
Republic of Croatia

Energy profile

Croatia (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

National electrification rate (2000):  99%Although the Republic of Croatia is almost completely electrified, there are still regions which do not have access to the electricity network or where the network capacity is insufficient. For the most part such areas are under special care of the state (i.e. underdeveloped, devastated by war, depopulated), on islands or in mountainous regions.Electricity in the country is transmitted and distributed on a network of 400 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV lines, connected via 5 400 kV substations, 6 220 kV substations, and 114 110 kV substations. The grid is also connected to the Slovenian and Bosnian networks, as well as being part of the UCTE synchronous grid system.

Renewable energy potential

HydropowerRenewable energy sources cover a large share of electricity generation in Croatia, driven by the significant number of hydroelectric power plants in the country.  Total hydropower installed capacity was 2,058 MW in 2006, dominated by large HPPs, with hydropower generation accounting for 6,070 GWh in 2006. Total installed capacity for small-hydro power in 2004 was 26.7 MW, with new large hydroelectric plants also being planned for the country.Wind powerThe Croatian wind sector has seen a large expansion in recent years, reaching 17.2 MW of total installed capacity in 2006, coupled with a generation level of 20 GWh.There is a relatively high potential for wind power in Croatia, with peak wind speeds of 7.3 m/s measured at 25m.  Currently research is being carried out on the potential construction of wind farms of a total installed capacity of about 1,500 MW, however in order to maintain the secure operation of the electricity system it is very probable that only some of these projects will be realized.Biomass energyCroatia has significant potential for biomass, with a potential electricity production of 9.39 TWh per annum.  Forests cover more than 40 % of Croatian territory, which means that the total potential for biomass use is significant, estimated at 39 PJ. Within the national energy program BIOEN, it has been demonstrated that by 2030 at least 15% of the total energy consumed could be obtained from biomass, used for both the production of heat and electricity. In May 2006, the first biodiesel production plant in Croatia (Modibit, located near the city of Ozalj) started its operation. The plant's capacity amounts to 20,000 tonnes per year.Solar energySolar power is expected to contribute mainly in thermal energy production; primarily in low temperature appliances. Passive solar architecture will reduce the need for thermal energy in buildings. Most of the installed solar capacity of Croatia (some 12,000-15,000m3) is off grid, with the 3 grid-connected systems in the north of the country contributing 48.8kW. A database of solar radiation in the country was published by the Hrjove Pozar Energy Institute, in conjunction with the University of Split, in 2006. According to this survey, the total solar energy potential of Croatia is 100PJ.Geothermal energyCroatia has some geothermal reservoirs in the north of the country, many of which have high value temperature gradients. According to studies conducted under the National Energy Program GEOEN, the total energy potential is 839 MWt, with the potential for power generation from geothermal sources being 48MW.

Energy framework

The Energy Strategy of Croatia was adopted by the Croatian Parliament on March 2002, for a period of 10 years. The principal objectives of the energy policy of the Republic of Croatia are stated in the Energy Sector Development Strategy (Official Gazette 38/2002 – summary). Some of the main objectives of the Energy Strategy are:Improvement of energy efficiency from the production, transformation, transmission and transport to distribution and consumption of energy;Utilization of renewable sources of energy which will be in accordance with sources, technological development and economic policy as a whole;Environmental protection, which in the energy sector implies the primary action in connection with energy efficiency, renewable sources, choice of energy-generating products and application of state-of-the-art protection technologies, quality legislation and supervision, the public opinion and education and promotion of best practices.Support to RESIn accordance with EU Directive on the promotion of the electricity produced from renewable energy source 2001/77/EC Croatia was obliged to set its share of RES in total energy consumption in 2010. In alliance with business indicators the recommended targets were 1100 GWh of electricity from RES, or 5.8% of total energy consumption in Croatia in 2010 (excluding large scale hydro power plants).However, Croatia has not met its 2010 target for electricity production from renewable energy sources covered by incentives. Increasing investment in renewable energy sources is hampered by a lengthy administrative process, which is acting as a disincentive to prospective investors. Alignment of legislation is advanced, but substantial efforts are required if Croatia is to meet its target of 20 % of final energy demand from renewable sources by 2020.In June 2010 the government adopted the National Renewable Energy Action Plan, as foreseen under the new EU Renewable Energy Directive. A new system started in 2007 when Croatia introduced the Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and cogeneration (OG 33/07). Feed-in tariffs for electricity produced from RES and cogeneration have been amended in the 2010 law, and implementing legislation on incentives for use of biofuels in transport has been enacted. The feed-in tariff system in Croatia is comprehensive, with different tariff structures existing for plants smaller and larger than 1 MW. A wide range of renewable resources are covered, including solar, wind, solid biomass, biogas and biofuels, and hydroelectric, including wave and tidal power. CHP installations can also claim a feed-in tariff, based on the size of the installation.Energy Efficiency ProgrammesCroatia ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 27 April 2007. Croatia is now obliged to reduce its emissions 5% in relation to the base year over the commitment period 2008-2012 and energy efficiency measures are expected to play a crucial role in fulfilment of these obligations.The first National Energy Efficiency Action Plan was adopted in April 2010, and included implementing legislation on the improvement of building energy efficiency, and the method for calculating energy savings in final consumption.Programmes dealing with energy efficiency are: KOGEN (cogeneration), MIEE (industrial energy efficiency networking), KUENcts (district heating), TRANCO (transport) and KUENzgrada (building construction efficiency).

Source
Static Source:
  • Investor Interest and Capacity-Building Needs. Financing Energy Efficiency Investments for Climate Change Mitigation Project

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    Publication date:

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    This web-based database provides detailed project output documents from Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) projects. The database contains output documents from specific types of energy access, energy efficiency, and renewable energy programmes. These documents can be searched based for certain technologies or particular countries. Output documents are in English, Spanish, Chinese, French, and Portuguese. REEEP projects aim to improve access to clean and reliable energy in developing countries.

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    This paper employs a simulation model of the European power sector in order to analyze the abatement response to a carbon dioxide (CO2) price through fuel switching. Abatement is shown to depend on the price of allowances, but, more importantly, on the load level of the system and the ratio between natural gas and coal prices. The interplay of these determinants vitiates any simple relation between a CO2 price and abatement and requires the development of more than two-dimensional graphics to illustrate these complex relationships.