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Ghana

Official Name:
Republic of Ghana

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Specialized agency
Name:
Mr. Joseph Amankwa Baffoe
Position:
Senior Programme Officer
Phone:
+233 26237 3698, +233 0266 2465
Emails:
jabaffoe@gmail.com

Energy profile

Ghana (2014)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

While 72% of Ghana’s population has access to electricity, the Northern, upper East, and upper West regions have access rates of 44%, 30%, and 32%, respectively.The Ministry of Energy in 1989 instituted the National Electrification Scheme (NES) as Government’s principal policy to extend electricity to all parts of the country over a 30-year period from 1990-2020. 643 communities were connected to the national grid in 2012, bringing to the total of communities connected nationally to about 5,500 and a national average coverage of about 72% as of December 2012, just as in 2011 due to population growth catching up with the rate of electrification. All regional and district capitals have been connected to the national grid. According to the Ministry of Energy, over 3,000 communities earmarked for electrification since 2011 would continue. Also, funding arrangement had been secured for about 2,000 communities earmarked for electrification in 2013 and beyond.

Renewable energy potential

SolarThe solar resource is abundant in Ghana. The monthly average solar irradiation is between 4.4 and 5.6 kWh/m2/day, with sunshine duration of between 1,800 and 3,000 hours per annum. However, till recently, little was done to exploit this resource for grid-connected power generation. Solar power has considerable potential to serve households in un-electrified villages.VRA has just completed a small 2-megawatt-peak (MWp) solar photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected plant as a pilot project in Navrongo in the Northern Electricity Distribution Company (NEDCo) areas of operation, which should be commissioned later this year. Four sites in the environs of Kaleo (near Wa), Lawra, Jirapa, and Navrongo have been identified and acquired for a total of 10-MWp PV plants. VRA is seeking concessionary funding to develop the remaining 8 MWp.Wind EnergyGhana’s best wind resources are found primarily along narrow stretches of its eastern coastline. Along the coastline, the speeds (mostly 6–7 meters per second [m/s] at 50 m) are classified as “marginal” for wind generation. Nevertheless, grid-connected wind power is likely to be cheaper than grid-connected solar power. Clearly, it will be several years before the full extent to which Ghana’s wind resource is technically and financially viable for development on a large scale becomes clear. Yet, it is already evident that wind power is not likely to prove to be a substantial contributor to the power supply in the next decade.Biomass & biogasBiomass is Ghana‘s dominant energy resource in terms of its endowment and consumption. Approximately, about 20.8 million hectares of 23.8 million hectare land mass of Ghana is covered with biomass resources. Biomass fuels in Ghana mainly comprise of charcoal, plant residues and wood fuel. Wood fuel is the major form of biomass used as energy source for both domestic and commercial purposes in Ghana; about 90% of rural households depend on wood fuel and other biomass resources for domestic purposes (cooking, and heating, etc).Wood fuel is the dominant and cheapest fuel available on the Ghanaian market; the production, transportation and sale of wood fuels are all undertaken by the private sector. There is no official government pricing regulatory body responsible for setting the prices of wood fuels in Ghana; rather the pricing is dependent on the supply and demand conditions.These resources have not yet been developed for generating electricity in Ghana, and there are no projects in an advanced planning stage. Some developers are undertaking feasibility studies for biomass projects.HydroGhana has significant hydropower potential, and is already tapping this potential with its Akosombo, Kpong and Bui plants, which provide the majority of electricity in the country. Hydropower potential is estimated to be about 2,420 MW, and in addition to the large-scale Bui plant under construction, 21 additional hydro sites have been identified but not yet developed. Ghana is looking to diversify its power resources, as its reliance on hydroelectricity make it particularly vulnerable to drought.

Energy framework

The Government of Ghana has a national energy policy aimed at providing affordable access to electricity to all communities by 2020 and becoming a net exporter of electricity by 2015. This can be achieved by increasing the capacity of electricity generation (from 2,000 to 5,000 MW by 2015) as well as updating the necessary transmission and distribution infrastructure within the power sub-sector.The national renewable energy policy of Ghana is to increase the renewable energy components to 10% in the national energy mix by the year 2020. The renewable energy policy would be concentrate on three areas, namely solar and wind, alternative fuel for transportation and biomass pricing. The Government would institute measures to overcome the challenges in technology, market constraints and other institutional barriers inherent in investments in solar and wind. Further, the government would create a favorable regulatory and fiscal regimes as well as attractive pricing system to enhance investment in the sector.The National Electrification Scheme (NES) has been a largely successful government program initiated with donor assistance in 1989 with a goal of extending the grid throughout the country by 2020. To date, all district capitals are on the national grid, as are many communities along the high and medium tension power lines.With the stated goal of the NES, there is little room for decentralized energy sources such as solar home systems. In addition to the high cost of the systems, people in communities without grid power remain convinced that the grid will be extended to them soon and are not willing to pay substantially more for solar energy in the short term.It should be noted that, the cost of extending the grid to low-voltage points is estimated at $2,000-$3,000 per connection, a range which is comparable to the cost of a mid-sized solar electric system. This is in addition to the cost of medium and low voltage transmission lines. Under these circumstances, the NES has shut out a large sector of the market for photovoltaic systems. The subsidies enjoyed by users under the NES are also not available to RET users, who are forced to bear the full cost of their power systems in advance.The current environment heavily favours extension of the grid even to areas where it is not economically justified. The needs of such communities could be easily met with the same level of subsidy enjoyed by grid users if they were given the choice between solar, wind, micro-hydro and other sources. (Attachie and Amuzuvi, 2012)

Source
Static Source:
  • Eco Ltd

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Eco is a boutique management consultancy specialized in the design and formulation of climate change mitigation and adaptation projects. Operating since 2000, Eco has worked with a wide range of international clients such as the AfDB, IFC, World Bank, UNDP, UNIDO, EBRD, GIZ and the European Union.

    Eco has designed over 250 projects in 82 countries across Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia. We have assessed markets and designed financial, technology and other strategies and then formulated projects.

  • Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated (OECI) is a private sector organization established in 2011 with the mission to provide quality technical and policy advice on sustainable development. Okapi's work includes project design, management and evaluation, strategic planning, capacity development, resource mobilization, scientific and technical advisory services, technology transfer. Okapi's experience extends in climate-affected sectors such as agriculture, sustainable land and water management, coastal zone management, infrastructure and others.

  • Institute of Natural Resources NPC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Africa
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The INR is a non-profit organization that works towards the wise use of natural resources in pursuit of sustainability for the good of the environment and the society, through multidisciplinary applied research. The INR provides strategic and operational support to develop cutting edge solutions that support the resolution of natural resource challenges, in partnership with government, civil society, the private sector and other leading research organizations.

  • Sustainable Capital Advisors

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    SCA provides strategy consulting and financial advisory services to public and private sector organizations seeking to implement sustainable infrastructure projects. Our client engagements involve a diversity of technologies located in countries across the world. Our job is to assist clients "sift through the noise" and develop practical and replicable solutions based on the realities of the financial and energy markets. 

  • International Water Management Institute

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Sri Lanka
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    IWMI’s Mission is to provide evidence-based solutions to sustainably manage water and land resources for food security, people’s livelihoods and the environment. IWMI’s Vision is ‘a water-secure world’. IWMI targets water and land management challenges faced by poor communities in the developing countries, and through this contributes towards the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing poverty and hunger, and maintaining a sustainable environment. 

  • STENUM GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    STENUM has worked for UNIDO, UNEP and IFC in training their Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production Centers and supporting them in the implementation of various activities (education of national experts, consultancy of companies in waster reduction, water minimization, chemicals management and energy efficiency). STENUM has elaborated several manuals and training materials (UNIDO train the trainer toolkit, UNEP PRESME toolkit).

  • Ecofys a Navigant company

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Ecofys, a Navigant company, is an international energy and climate consultancy focused on sustainable energy for everyone. Founded in 1984, the company is a trusted advisor to governments, corporations, NGOs, and energy providers worldwide. The team delivers powerful results in the energy and climate transition sectors. Working across the entire energy value chain, Ecofys develops innovative solutions and strategies to support its clients in enabling the energy transition and working through the challenges of climate change.

  • Ecosoluzioni Snc

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Italy
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Research and consulting on policy & market uptake actions in sustainable energy, clean tech, agriculture, waste mngt. and environment. Since 2000, wide-ranging technical assistance experience in climate change adaptation & mitigation related services, including: tech. assessments, business coaching, feasibility analysis, policy/market analysis, policy planning, M & E, partnership facilitation, finance structuring, agro-energy value chains, natural resources management, technology transfer. 

  • Integra Government Services International LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Integra designs, implements, and evaluates international development activities, with a focus on creating opportunities for the poor, expanding access to public infrastructure, promoting social and ecological resilience and strengthening donor programs. Integra has a proven record of innovative approaches yielding lasting results. Integra is a partner of NASA in deploying state-of-the-art Earth Observation technology for REDD+ MRV, while working to build on-the-ground socio-ecological resilience. 

     

  • Solvatten

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Sweden
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Solvatten provides combined portable water treatment and solar water heater system that has been designed for use at the household level in the developing world. It is made of durable plastic materials and requires no batteries, chemicals or spare parts and treats water harnessing the power of the sun. The unit has an average lifespan of 7-10 years. Lasting a childhood, Solvatten tackles health, environment, and savings using green energy.