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France

Official Name:
French Republic

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Specialized agency
Name:
Mr. Laurent Caillierez
Position:
Senior Project Manager
Phone:
+33 1 47 65 23 30
Emails:
laurent.caillierez@ademe.fr

Energy profile

France (2013)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The French distribution grid corresponds to a voltage level of up to 50 kV, while the German distribution network for example includes also the 110 kV level. In France the consistency of the transmission networks is determined by the decree No. 2005-172 of 22 February 2005. With some exceptions, the transmission grid comprises all installations with a tension higher or equal to 50 kV. Stakeholders highlighted the above outlined tension structure as main reason for the fact that in France grid saturation occurs in the transmission grid, while in Germany it rather occurs in the distribution network, even though the grid saturation occurs on the same voltage level in both countries.

Renewable energy potential

SolarThe national action plan envisages a total installed capacity of 5,400 MW in 2020, of which 4,860 MW would come from photovoltaic panels (i.e. 10 times more than in 2010) and 540 MW would come from concentrated solar energy, thus producing a combined total of 6.9 TWh of solar electricity per year.Wind EnergyEach SRCAE (Schéma Régional du Climat, de l’Air et de L’Energie) include regional wind energy plan with potential locations for onshore and offshore production. Overall target for wind energy in France by 2020 is 25,000 MW (onshore 19,000 MW, offshore 6,000 MW).BiomassThe National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) envisages an increase in the production of biomass electricity from 3.8 TWh in 2010 to 17.2 TWh in 2020, by doubling solid biomass electricity production (wood and household waste) and tripling biogas electricity production. The incineration of household waste (currently representing more than 50% of solid biomass electricity production) should remain the same; it is therefore wood and biogas that should provide the additional 13.4 TWh.GeothermalThe NREAP envisages doubling the capacity of the experimental deep geothermal installation (>5,000m) at Soultz-la-Forêt in Alsace (from 1.5 to 3 MW) and significantly increasing the capacity of the installations in use in the French West Indies, resulting in a total increase from 0.1 TWh in 2010 to 0.5 TWh by 2020.MarineThe NREAP envisages obtaining a total capacity of 140 MW from various experimental technologies currently producing 0.65 TWh per year, which shall be added by 2020 to 250 MW of capacity produced by the La Rance Tidal Power Plant (Brittany) which currently produces 0.55 TWh per year.

Energy framework

Overall French energy policy is regulated by the Planning Act of 13 July 2005, which aims to reduce national energy dependency, ensure competitive power prices and tackle climate change. The French government implemented several policies to reach these objectives, including renewable energy subsidies, a feed-in tariff for renewables, and tax incentives for renewables.French energy policy is based largely on its use of nuclear power for electricity. The reliance on nuclear power, which is essentially free of direct carbon emissions, has also led to a French GHG emissions profile that is much lower than the EU average – per capita and per unit of GDP. France’s emission targets have thus been lower than those of similarly industrialised economies. France has implemented climate strategies in various forms since 1995. Initial action plans were followed by the National Programme for Combating Climate Change in 2000, which was in turn followed by the national strategy for sustainable development published in 2004 and updated in 2006.The policy for combating climate change was finally strengthened at the end of October 2007 within the framework of the conclusions from round tables on “the Grenelle Environment Forum” and eventually named the Climate Plan 2004-2012. The latter is France’s action plan for meeting its commitments in relation to the Kyoto Protocol. It is now required that the climate policy be updated every two years according to the 2005 Energy Policy Framework Law. The “Grenelle Environment Round Table” initiated under the presidency of Nicolas Sarkozy, and the Environmental Conference introduced in September 2012 by the government of Francois Hollande, reflect France’s engagement in green growth measures and climate mitigation.The goal of these processes is to develop a governmental work programme through the formulation of a national roadmap identifying the path forward on sustainable development and particularly on energy transition in close consultation with industry, government, and non-governmental organisations. The French government finances this process through e.g. its “Investment for the Future” Programme (Programme d´investissements d´avenir). Within this framework, France has set itself the target of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 by at least 75%. President Hollande pledged to cut the share of nuclear energy in the country's electricity mix to 50% from 75% by 2025. In September 2012, he reinforced this plan and initiated an "energy transition” debate that is to culminate in a new energy bill in June 2013. The debate will include a wide range of stakeholders and is expected to have important impacts on the development of renewable energy.In March 2011, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Economy passed a new decree on the support of photovoltaics power that brought major changes to the tariff structure. Tariffs for all sizes of installation were lowered significantly by 20% after having been one of the highest in Europe. Policymakers introduced an automatic, recurring degression of up to 9.5% for photovoltaic tariffs that occurs four times a year and depends on the capacity additions in the previous quarter. If huge quantities are added, tariffs can potentially decrease by up to 33% annually. The revision of the policy also brought a new categorization to the tariffs that distinguishes between fully integrated and integrated installations, location (mounted to private, commercial, and public buildings; ground-mounted), and size.In the heating/cooling sector, policies largely remained unchanged. Since the beginning of 2011, the tax deduction benefits for investments in heating/cooling installations that use renewable energy (“Eco-Prêt à Taux Zéro”) can no longer be combined with the zero interest loan (“Crédit d‟Impôt Développement Durable”).RES-EA fixed feed-in tariff and a public competitive bidding scheme for biomass and offshore wind power plants are the key instruments for RES-E support in France. The feed-in tariff covers all major renewable energy technology and provides support for periods of 15 and 20 years depending on the technology. Tariffs are differentiated by technology and size of installation. Except for wind and solar photovoltaic power, they are not subject to annual degression; policymakers reduce them on an ad-hoc basis every few years. Additional bonuses are paid for the compliance with certain quality criteria. Over the last three years (2009-2011), several modifications to the legislation have been made, particularly what concerns the support of power production from solar photovoltaic, biomass, geothermal and wind energy.RES-H&CFrance has three major instruments for the support of renewable energy sources in the heating and cooling sector. The Heat Fund (“Fonds Chaleur”) is the most important instrument for large-scale installations. It enables heat producers to receive a region-specific feed-in premium for every MWh of heat they feed into the network. For small-scale installations of households and municipalities two main incentives are in place, which are a zero interest loan (the “Eco-Prêt à Taux Zéro”) and a tax deduction policy (the “Crédit d’Impôt Développement Durable”). Some regions provide investors of small scale projects with additional fiscal incentives.RES-TRenewable energy sources in the transport sector receive support through several policies. A quota obligation forces retailers to blend their fuel with a minimum share of biofuels. Blended fuels and pure biofuels also benefit from reduced taxes. There is a bonus-malus system, which encourages the replacement of inefficient vehicles with low-emission vehicles. France also provides buyers of electric and hybrid vehicles with a premium.Energy efficiency measuresEconomic stimulus measures provide incentives for scrapping old vehicles and launch a zero-interest loan programme for residential energy efficiency improvements. They also included energy requirements for new buildings (50 kWh/m2/year) and energy efficiency assessment and renovation of state-owned buildings.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • GWCC INTERIVAL ZT GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    GWCC INTERIVAL ZT GmbH (GWCC) is a consulting company based in Vienna (part of the Austrian Consulting Group ROHRHOFER & Partner). GWCC has a long experience (since 1984) in the fields of Infrastructure Development, Management, Institutional Strengthening in the field of Water, Waste Water and Waste Management in Austria, CEE,CIS, FUS countries. Climate related projects are mainly conducted in various regions of Austria,e.g.flood risk mapping & planning of flood mitigation measures.  

  • Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale Università degli Studi di Firenze

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Italy
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    University of Florence traces its origins to the Studium established in 1321.UNIFI applies to CTN with its Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICEA) which researches climate change in relation to transport, infrastructure and mobility.There is a team dedicated to mobility which has 20 years experience coordinating international research projects.

  • HabitatSeven Inc.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    HabitatSeven is a design and technology development agency specializing in producing digital communication tools, websites and data driven applications for climate science and climate policy based organizations. Their team combines graduate level experts in the area of climate change with top designers and developers. HabitatSeven has built award winning, open-source delivery mechanisms, visualization engines and data services specifically focused on delivering climate data.          

  • Tambourine Innovation Ventures Inc.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Incorporated in 2015, Tambourine Innovation Ventures (TIV) is an innovation advisory and venture development firm that provides a full suite of services and solutions to the challenges and needs generated by the increasing interest and activity globally in the areas of climate change adaptation/mitigation, innovation, technology transfer and venture finance. TIV founders and consultants bring more than three decades of experience in assisting the developing countries access innovative technologies from the industrialized countries and grow technology ventures.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.